48 terms

Chapter 8 Mastering

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The origin of the first living organisms is called ________.
biogenesis
Many of the organic molecules associated with life can be created spontaneously under certain conditions. What do these conditions resemble?
Primordial Earth
Which was not a gas in Earth's earliest atmosphere?
O2
What do scientists believe was the original genetic material able to copy itself without assistance?
RNA
By what means do bacterial cells typically divide?
Binary fission
Which protective structure forms to protect certain bacteria during periods of harsh conditions?
Endospore
If you looked at unknown cells under a microscope, what could lead you to correctly conclude that they are bacteria cells?
They lack a nucleus.
Some bacteria have a spherical shape, called ________.
coccus
What is the strategy used by many prokaryotes for obtaining their energy and their molecular building blocks directly from inorganic chemicals?
Chemosynthetic
Which are the smallest, least complex cell types?
Bacteria cells
Plants are in the domain ________.
Eukarya
Which statement is true regarding bacteria?
All pathogenic bacteria are harmful to humans.
Why is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N2 gas) into ammonium (NH4) important for life on this planet?
Ammonium is a plant nutrient.
The practice of using bacteria to remove pollutants from the environment is called ________.
bioremediaton
Food poisoning is often caused by a bacterium called ________.
Salmonella
What is the vector of Lyme disease?
Ticks
Which was first on the planet, prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes
There are more helpful types of bacteria on this planet than harmful types.
True
Which is not a method of introducing new genes into a bacterium?
Binary fission
Viruses that infect bacteria are called ________.
phages
Which version of "bacterial DNA transfer" involves a physical connection between the two bacteria cells?
Conjugation
Which of the following is a form of reproduction in bacteria?
Neither of these
Are all bacteria in a colony genetically identical?
No, there are ways for bacteria to acquire new genetic material.
Which structure is not part of the endomembrane system?
Mitochondria
What do the nucleus and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum have in common?
Their membranes are interconnected.
What is the leading scientific theory on how the first nuclear membrane originated?
From the inward folding of the plasma membrane
When did the first eukaryotic cell form?
About a billion years after the first prokaryotic cell was formed
What do the nucleus and mitochondria have in common?
They both contain DNA.
When a plant cell divides, how would you expect its chloroplasts to divide?
Binary fission
Which organelle could you remove and the cell would still survive?
All organelles are required for the survival of the cell.
Which organelle can survive outside of the cells?
No organelles can survive outside the cell.
What might be the advantage to a cell if it assimilated an ingested photosynthetic bacterium rather than digesting it?
It could now use sunlight to make its food.
Which protist group includes members with plantlike traits such as chloroplasts and multicellularity?
Algae
By what means do the amoebas move?
Pseudopodia
Which of the terrestrial unicellular protists is an enormous cell with multiple nuclei?
Slime molds
While most biologists do not consider viruses to be alive, viruses do share some characteristics with living things. Which of the following is a required trait for life that viruses share with living things?
Having highly ordered structure
Which viral life cycle would result in a quicker death for an infected cell?
Lytic cycle
Medicine that prevents viral infections is a(n) ________.
vaccine
Which of the following do not get infected by viruses?
All of these can be infected by viruses.
The misshapen version of a protein that causes properly folded proteins to misfold is the ________.
prion
An infectious circular piece of RNA is the ________.
viroid
Which of the following infects only plants?
Viroid
A degenerative brain disorder transmitted by cannibalism is called ________.
kuru
Halophiles are found in which environment?
Salty
Which organisms are called the extremophiles and flourish in extreme conditions?
Archaea
Where would you expect to find methanogens?
In the digestive tract of cows
Which specific cells are infected by the HIV virus?
Helper T cells
Where would you find the double-stranded HIV DNA in an infected cell?
Incorporated directly into the host cell's chromosome