American History II - Unit 3
Imperialism and WWI
Terms in this set (74)
the policy in which stronger nations exert their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories.
Motivations for American Imperialism
1. desire for military strength due to competitions between imperialist nations. Also needed foreign ports for expanding navy.
2. Thirst for new markets: US needed more raw natural materials and new markets for goods.
3. Belief in cultural superiority: Social Darwinism, belief that Anglo-Saxon Christian peoples are superior to all others.
Admiral Alfred Mahan
US Navy, urged Congress to expand the navy, led to the Great White Fleet.
Secretary of State in 1867 who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
judging another culture by one's own cultural standards
Join or merge territory into an existing political unit such as a country or state
US naval base and port in Hawaii
Queen of Hawaii, opposed to American annexation efforts
Cuban rvolutionary and poet, attacked US sugar mills to provoke US intervention to help free Cuba - "Cuba Libre"
Joseph Pulizter and William Randolph Hearst
owned NY newspapers, printed exaggerated news articles about Spain's treatment of Cubans - yellow journalism
3 Major Causes of the Spanish-American War
the de Lome letter
explosion of the USS Maine
sensational style of writing that exaggerates the news to lure and engage readers and provoke an emotional response.
Serves as one of the main catalysts for the Spanish American War .
The De Lome Letter
New York Journal published a letter from Spainish minister to US Enrique de Lome - called McKinley a weak lader. Spain apoligized, minister resigned , US insulted.
the USS Maine sent to Cuba to pick up US citizens, exploded in Havana harbor. Yellow journalism driven newspapers blamed Spain for the explosion.
Commodore George Dewey
opened fire on Spanish fleet in Manila, the capital of the Philippines, defeated Spanish naval forces in the Philippines
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
Voluntary cavalry unit led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish-American War
San Juan Hill
Site of the most famous battle of the Spanish-American war, where the Rough Riders and black regiments successfully defeated Spanish forces
Treaty of Paris
Ends the Spanish American War. Cuba gets independence from Spain, US gains Guam and Puerto Rico for free and the Philippines for $29m.
an agreement to end fighting
Treaty of Paris (1898)
ended the Spanish-American War
Spain gave US Guam and Puerto Rico
US bought the Philippines from Spain
ended US military rule in Puerto Rico, set up a civil government in which the POTUS appointed governor and upper house members, Puerto Ricans elected lower house.
US would not take control of Cuba... however US military still occupied Cuba.
list of provisions that Cuba was forced to include in their constitution
1. Cuba would not make any secret treaties with other countries that would limit its independence
2. The US could intervene at any time.
3. Cuba was not allowed to go into debt.
4. The US could buy or lease land in Cuba for naval stations.
a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power.
Filipino rebel leader
Spheres of influence
areas in which another nation has great influence thus had special rights and economic privileges
Open Door Policy
proposed by John Hay
All imperialist nations interested in China would share their trading rights with the US (creating an "open door") and preventing a monopoly of control in China
American secretary of state who proposed the Open Door policies in China and protect American interests in China
most famous Chinese secret society, named for their training in martial arts
1900, squashed by British, French, German, Japanese, and US forces in Beijing, the capital of China.
man made waterway in Panama
1903 - US encouraged Panama to fight for independence from Columbia. US and Panama sign treaty to begin construction.
Shortened travel by 8,000 miles.
Big Stick Diplomacy
Roosevelt's foreign policy - combination of intelligent and effective diplomacy (speak softly) and ever-present threat of military force (carry a big stick)
1904 - Roosevelt's addition to the Monroe Doctrine of 1823.
declared that the US would use military force to protect US economic interests in Latin America against European advances.
Taft's foreign policy - US supplied money to prevent Latin American and Caribbean countries from defaulting on foreign loans. Provided economic stability in these areas as well as prevented European advances.
Wilson's foreign polocy - the belief that the US should not recognize any Latin American government viewed as oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to US interests.
Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
Mexican rebels against the Mexican president Carranza.
The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy... European countries had been spending increasing amounts of money and stockpiling weapons.
A devotion to the interests and culture of one's country, an extreme version of patriotism
France, Britain, and Russia... later the US joins
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
his assassination led to a web of European countries declaring war on each other due to preexisting alliances.
a time during war in which neither side is making advancing progress
no man's land
land between enemy trenches
military operations in whcih the opposing forces attack and counterattack from systems of fortified ditches, gained little ground per time spent in trenches
British ship sunk by German U-boat, killed 128 Americans, angered US
Proposed a German/Mexican alliance
Germany promised to help Mexico regain land in the US if the US should go to war.
used by the US Navy during WW1, a heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups (cut US shipping losses in half)
General John J. Pershing
led the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) - the American armed forces in Europe
American Expeditionary Force
AEF - the American armed forces in Europe in WW1
New WW1 technologies
"mechanized warfare" - improved machine guns, airplanes, tanks, poison gas, observation balloons
November 11, 1918 at 11 am. (11/11 at 11)
ended fighting in WW1
Selective Service Act
1917, required the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft.
Person who refuses to enter the military or bear arms due to moral or religious reasons
War Industries Board
Headed by Bernard Baruch, regulated business and industries in WW1, advocated for mass and standarized production to eliminate waste and increase
biased communication designed to influence people's thoughts and actions
Created by the Committee on Public Opinion, headed by George Creel
Increased patriotism as well as anti-immigrant and anti-German sentiments
Schenck v. US (1919)
Charles Schenck, an official in the US Socialist Party, distributed leaflets against the draft.
He was arrested, convicted,and sentenced to prison.
Supreme Court ruling: Under wartime conditions, Schenck's words were dangerous and panic-inciting... not protected by the 1st Amendment
The Great Migration
mass movement of African Americans from rural southern areas to urban cities.
increased racial tensions in cities that led to race riots.
Wilson's plan for international peace after WW1
First 5 points detail how to prevent another world war: no secret treaties, freedom of the seas, no tariffs to support free trade, reduction in arms to peacetime levels, and self-determination for colonial people of imperialist countries.
Next 8 points: boundary changes in Europe
14th point: The League of Nations
League of Nations
An international organization to addres diplomatic crises like the ones that led to WW1.
a forum to air grievances without resorting to going to war.
Woodrow Wilson (US), Georges Clemenceau (France), David Lloyd George (Britain), Orlando (Italy)
Treaty of Versailles
Peace treaty after WW1
1. established 9 new countries
2. France and Britain were to split 5 mandates (areas that would eventually gain independence)
3. No army for Germany
4. Germany had to pay reparations (war damages) to the Allied powers
Germany had to accept responisbilty for starting WW1
war damages (payments)
Henry Cabot Lodge
US senator, believed signing the Treaty of Versailles and joinging the League of Nations would prevent the US from acting alone for is best interests
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
A policy of avoiding political or military involvement with other countries
A political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life in a country.
people who oppose organized government
period of intense fear and paranoia of communists in America after WW1
Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian radicals who became symbols of the Red Scare of the 1920s; arrested (1920), tried and executed (1927) for a robbery/murder, they were believed by many to have been innocent but convicted because of their immigrant status and radical political beliefs.
the maximum number of people who could enter the United States from
each foreign country
the goal of the quota system was to cut sharply European
immigration to the United States
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