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process of producing
two individual
species from one


- members
of the population
that interbreed to
produce fertile

geographic isolation

organism are divided by a geographical feature such as a lake or canyon

Reproductive isolation

Organisms may appear to
be alike and be different
species. Organisms may look different
and yet be the same species.

Change in chromosome number

Polyploid species result from nondisjunction
(chromosomes fail to separate properly) during
meiosis or mitosis.

Polyploid speciation

only takes one generation


the idea that species
evolve at a slow, steady rate, with
small, adaptive changes gradually
accumulating over time.

Punctuated Equilibrium

- argues that
speciation occurs quickly, in rapid
bursts, with long periods of genetic
equilibrium in between.

Divergent Evolution

when species that
were once similar (become more
and more different)

Adaptive Radiation

When one species
evolves into an array
of different species to
fit environmental

Convergent Evolution

Occurs when unrelated
species occupy similar
environmental habitats in
different areas of the world.
Similar environmental
pressures and similar natural
selection pressures allows
different species to look

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