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Speciation

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Speciation
a
process of producing
two individual
species from one
Species
- members
of the population
that interbreed to
produce fertile
offspring
geographic isolation
organism are divided by a geographical feature such as a lake or canyon
Reproductive isolation
Organisms may appear to
be alike and be different
species. Organisms may look different
and yet be the same species.
Change in chromosome number
Polyploid species result from nondisjunction
(chromosomes fail to separate properly) during
meiosis or mitosis.
Polyploid speciation
only takes one generation
Gradualism
the idea that species
evolve at a slow, steady rate, with
small, adaptive changes gradually
accumulating over time.
Punctuated Equilibrium
- argues that
speciation occurs quickly, in rapid
bursts, with long periods of genetic
equilibrium in between.
Divergent Evolution
when species that
were once similar (become more
and more different)
Adaptive Radiation
When one species
evolves into an array
of different species to
fit environmental
habitats
Convergent Evolution
Occurs when unrelated
species occupy similar
environmental habitats in
different areas of the world.
Similar environmental
pressures and similar natural
selection pressures allows
different species to look
alike.