18 terms

Holt McDougal Environmental Science Chapter 6 Hug

STUDY
PLAY
Biome
region with characteristics of certain CLIMATE, PLANTS, ANIMALS
Climate
Long term weather patterns (temperature, precipitation, humidity, winds); climate gets colder as latitude and altitude increase but can be influenced by cold and warm ocean currents
Latitude
important to biome location; it is the
distance north or south from equator
Altitude
important to biome location; it is the
height of an object above sea level.
Tropical rain forest
located NEAR equator , Characterized by densely grouped trees, rainfall and humidity.
It has the GREATEST AMOUNT OF SPECIES DIVERSITY --wide variety of plants, animals.
Adaptations--Animals, Plants have wide variety of adaptations to the environment
Composed of several layers: understory, canopy, emergent layer)
Soil is poor in nutrients.
THREATS TO RAIN FOREST: DEFORESTATION (trees are cut down for paper/wood and growing cash crops) results in habitat destruction
Emergent layer
TOP LAYER of rain forest (has tallest trees)
Everything grows in DIRECT SUNLIGHT
Canopy
Under emergent layer
ABSORBS 95% of SUNLIGHT
MOST ANIMALS LIVE IN CANOPY
Understory
Bottom layer
VERY LITTLE LIGHT REACHES THIS AREA
Temperate rain forest
MODERATE temperatures
HIGH HUMIDITY
LARGE AMOUNT OF RAIN
Temperate deciduous forest
Trees LOSE their LEAVES
SEASONAL changes, (temperature varies with season)
Animals use forest for both food & shelter; birds fly south for warmer weather & better availability of food
Taiga
VERY COLD temperatures, trees are CONIFERS, keep needle like leaves all year round
ANIMALS adapt to environment (ex. snowshoe hare sheds brown summer fur and grows white fur to camouflage them in the winter snow)
Savanna
tropical biome with grasses, shrubs and small trees, WARM temperatures
Rain falls only during the wet season
Animals include elephants, gazelles, rhinos, giraffes
Temperate grassland
moderate rainfall; FERTILE soil for growing crops, many have been converted to FARMLAND
summer/hot;winter/cold
plants are grasses/ wild flowers
grazing animals such as cattle, sheep, horses
prairie dogs, owls, badgers live in underground burrows that protect them from predators. MOST ENDANGERED BIOME (soil erosion from farming)
Chaparral
located by COASTS; DRY climate, 4 seasons, moderate temperatures, shrubs,
low lying plants, shrubs
animals include lizards, chipmunks; found between grasslands and desert biomes; animals camouflage to blend in environment;
THREAT to chaparral - HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (commercial & residential building, near ocean)
Desert
VERY LITTLE RAIN
Cactus plants have adaptations to survive with little water (thick stems, leaves, waxy coating to store water); plants drop leaves and regrow new ones when it rains; plants also have spines to keep away animals
animals are nocturnal; adaptations may include thick scaly skin, other animals bury (estivate) themselves in ground; cactus, reptiles, snakes, arachnids, insects
Tundra
located in northern ARCTIC regions
VERY COLD, little precipitation; examples include arctic also high altitude (mountain tops); animals include penguin, moose, polar bear
ENDANGERED DUE TO GLOBAL WARMING
THREATS also include OIL exploration, extraction, transport--these have disrupted tundra biomes;
OIL SPILLS, LEAKS can poison food & water
permafrost
frozen layer (frozen year round) of soil in tundra (cold) biome Ex: Alaska has permafrost.
epiphyte
also called air plant, any plant that grows upon another plant or object merely for physical support.

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