Spring Psych 4

psychological disorder
a pattern of atypical behavior that results in personal distress or a significant impairment in a person's social or occupational functioning; 1. distress 2. disability 3. danger
Hern's Disease
after hearing symptoms, tendency of diagnosing or recognizing characteristics in ourselves or others around us, the impact of behavior is most important
Medical Model of mental illnesses
treat psych disorders like physical diseases: have biological bases and can be classified into discrete categories
sign of a disorder
distinguishing one disorder from another
initial cause that led to the development of this disorder
prediction about the likely course of this disorder
atypical behavior
significantly above or below the average in frequency
violation of cultural norms
what's typical depends on reference population
maladaptive behavior
disruptive or harmful for the person in society
personal distress
experiencing troubling emotions about behavior
a break from reality
psychodynamic theoretical perspective
behavior is controlled by unconscious forces
behavioral theoretical perspective
focuses on observable behavior, patterns of reinforcement
cognitive theoretical perspective
understands behavior by studying thoughts, information, processing, and interruption of experiences
sociocultural theoretical perspective
emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior
biological theoretical perspective
examines physiological processes, esp. brain functioning
The Diathesis-Stress Model
proposes that the interaction of both the predisposition for a disorder and environmental stressors are what causes the psychological disorder
the predisposition for a psychological disorder
diagnostic and statistical manuel of mental disorders; descriptive rather than explanatory, atheoretical, provides directions to clinicians
Axis Categorization of Disorders
Axis I- clinical disorders that are temporary and treatable, Axis II- personality disorders and mental retardations, Axis III- general medical conditions, Axis IV- psychosocial and environmental problems, Axis V- global assessment of functioning
General Categorization of Disorders
anxiety, mood, dissociative, schizophrenia, somatoform, and personality
culture bound syndromes
syndromes limited to specific societies, localized, diagnostic categories
falling out syndrome
southern US and Caribbean cultural disorder- dizziness, spinning, collapsing
ghost sickness
Navajo cultural disorder- weakness, bad drams, feelings of danger, feelings of futility, loss of appetite, dizziness, hallucinations, and loss of consciousness
Latah syndrome
Malasia cultural disorder- exaggerated startle response after trauma
Evil Eye
Mediterranean cultural disorder- causes injury or bad luck
benefits of diagnostic labels
summarizes symptoms and problems, conveys info about causes of disorder and prognosis
risks of diagnostic labels
dehumanizing, discrimination, and limitations due to negative stereotypes, expect people with label to act abnormally and misperceive disorders
mood disorders
disroder characterized by emotional extremes that cause significant disruption daily functioning
Major Depressive Disorder
most common mood disorder, experience dysphoria and andhedonia, changes in eating and sleeping habits, restlessness or lethargy, fatigue, worthlessness and guilt, difficulty concentrating, suicidal ideation=> at least 5 symptoms for at least 2 weeks; age 30-44 high risk, women more so
extreme and persistent negative moods
inability to experience pleasure by participating in activities on previously enjoyed
disorder: similar symptoms as depression, but less intense, only 3 symptoms to be diagnosed, longer lasting
higher rates among men, elderly adult, unemployed and retired adults, widowed adults, and Native or European Americans
Bipolar Disorder
disorder: high levels of manic symptoms followed by high levels of depressive symptoms; persists for weeks and interferes with daily functioning; occurs earlier in life and equally for men and women
excessively elated, active emotional state
Biological Etiology of Bipolar Disorder
etiology: family risk very high, amygdala may be enlarged (has to do with emotion), imbalance in neurotransmitter systems specifically with serotonin and norepinephrine
Biological Etiology of Major Depressive Disorder
etiology: heredity moderate, low activity in frontal lobe where there are connections with emotional centers, serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine imbalances, smaller hippocampus and higher activity in amygdala showing rumination and worry
Cognitive Etiology of Mood Disorders
etiology: negative view of self, the world, and the future, misinterpret daily experiences to support negative outlook
Behavioral Etiology of Mood Disorders
etiology: low social reinforcements, skill deficits and decreased opportunities to interact with others
Seasonal Affective Disorder
symptoms of depression at particular times of year, unusually high metabolic rates, physiological differences from other depression patients i.e. light therapy is quite effective at restoring serotonin levels
Anxiety Disorders
disorders characterized by distressing, persistent, anxiety or maladaptive behavior, high lifetime prevalence
5 Major Anxiety Disorders
panic disorder (episodes of intense fear sudden and unexpected), phobic disorder (strong irrational and specific fears), generalized anxiety disorder (constant state of moderate anxiety), OCD, PTSD
fear of going out in public, results from panic attacks
checking, washing, ordering, etc
Biological Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
etiology: genetics may predispose, biological and chemical bases
Behavioral Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
etiology: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, phobias identify with traumatic conditioning event associated with anxiety, panic disorders misinterpret or exaggerate significance of physiological symptoms
disorder: characterized by severe impairment in thinking, profoundly alters ABC's, symptoms must persist for at least 6 months, severe impairment in daily life
Affect, Behavior, Cognition
Positive Symptoms for Schizophrenia
delusions, hallucinations, disordered behavior, disorganized speech
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
flat affect, no emotional delivery, alogia, monotone, aphasia, avolition (lack of motivation to do things)
Paranoid Schizophrenia
schizophrenia that has hallucinations and delusions of persecution or grandeur
Disorganized Schizophrenia
schizophrenia that is unrelated hallucinations and delusions, incoherent, speech, strange facial grimaces (very rare)
Catatonic Schizophrenia
schizophrenia that is characterized by some extreme level of activity
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
schizophrenia that is patterns of disordered behavior, thought, and emotion that cannot be classified as any other subtype
Residual Schizophrenia
individuals who had prior episodes involving any other subtype but are not currently experiencing the major symptoms of schizophrenia
Biological Etiology of Schizophrenia
type of etiology: strong genetic base, increase dopamine, enlarged cerebral ventricles and shrinkage in surrounding cerebral cortex, PET scans
Behavioral Etiology of Schizophrenia
type of etiology: Diathesis-Stress Model: behavioral interactions with biological factors in triggering onset, more reactive to stress, high baseline cortisol
Dissociative Disorders
disorder: loss of contact with portions of one's consciousness or memory, significant aspects of experience kept separate in consciousness and memory
Symptoms of Dissociative Disorders
symptoms of this disorder: identity confusion, identity alteration, derealization, depersonalization, amnesia
Psychodynamic Etiology of Dissociative Disorders
type of etiology: dissociation results from attempt to repress some troubling event
Biological Etiology of Dissociative Disorders
type of etiology: undetected neurological problem
Cognitive Etiology of Dissociative Disorders
type of etiology: dissociate as a way of coping with intense distress; may become automatic
Somatoform Disorders
type of disorder: physical complaints without physical causes
Conversion Disorder
type of disorder: ex. "glove anesthesia" not possible in nerves biologically
Personality Disorders
type of disorder: enduring pattern of thinking, feeling, behaving; inflexible ineffective behavior patterns that "impair social functioning"
Cluster A Types and Symptoms
personality disorder cluster: odd/eccentric; paranoid, schizoid (detachment, restricted range of emotions), schizotypal (cognitive and perceptual distortions)
Cluster B Types and Symptoms
personality disorder cluster: dramatic, emotional, erratic; borderline (instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion), Histrionic (excessive emotionality and attention seeking), Narcissistic (grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy), Antisocial (disregard for a violation of other's rights)
Cluster C Types and Symptoms
personality disorder cluster: anxious, fearful; Avoidant (social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, hypersensitivity to negative evaluation) Dependent (excessive need to be taken care of, submissive and clinging behavior, fear of separation), Obsessive- Compulsive
Antisocial Personality Disorder
type of disorder: exhibits anti-social behavior across all realms of life, no remorse or concern for others, often charming and likable even though their behavior is selfish; 80% male inmates and 65% female inmates
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
type of disorder: developmental precursor in young children for antisocial personality disorder
Conduct Disorder
type of disorder: older children to adolescent precursor for antisocial personality disorder
Biological Etiology of Personality Disorders
etiology: genetic component, abnormal brain development, chronic under arousal of both the autonomic and central nervous systems , environmental factors react with biological ones to cause problem
first use of "talking cure," developed by freud, identify unconscious motives, dream analysis
Freudian Theory
some traumatic childhood event leaves people with troubling memories of feelings; to manage resulting anxiety, repress troubling memory; material is now unconscious and continues to effect functioning
bring memory to consciousness through therapy
Psychoanalytical Technique
type of technique: directed toward helping client gain insight, interpret underlying meaning in dreams, art, poetry, etc.
free association
say whatever comes to mind without inhibiting or filtering speech
freudian slips
client means to say one thing but actually says something else
Issues and Criticisms of Psychoanalytical Technique
criticisms of technique: transference (feelings client develops for therapist reflect their feelings for significant others early in life) countertransference (feelings therapist develops for client reflect feelings they had for others early in life) resistance (anything the client does to interfere with therapeutic progress)
Psychodynamic Theory
theory: similar to psychoanalytical theory, less frequent sessions, lower emphasis on sexual drives, interpretation
Humanistic Therapies
type of therapy: Help people get in touch with their feelings, "true selves" and purpose in life, client-centered therapy (therapist is a facilitator)
Humanistic Theory
theory: psychological problems develop when outside forces stifle our natural tendency to seek personal growth
Gestalt Therapy
theory: stresses awareness of feelings in the here and now, directive approach and instruction, empty chair technique
Behavior Therapy
therapy: focuses on changing observable, measurable behaviors
conditioning new response to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors
systematic desensitization
commonly used with phobias, gradual exposure to feared object
response prevention
commonly used to treat compulsive behavior, situation triggers responses, distressing response prevented
Aversion Conditioning
clients are classically conditioned to react with aversion to a harmful or undesirable stimulus
operant conditioning
learning through reinforcement or punishment, behavior modification
observational learning
learning by observation and imitating behavior of others
desirable behaviors are demonstrated as a way of teaching them to clients
social skills training
clients are taught how to interact with others more comfortably, modeling and role playing
Cognitive Therapy
a type of therapy that focuses on thoughts rather than feelings or behaviors
Dichotomous thinking
type of thinking: yes or no, black or white
common cognitive distortions
dichotomous thinking, mental filter, mind reading, catastrophic exaggeration
Cognitive Therapy Techniques
technique: clients confronted with irrational beliefs; develop more realistic way of thinking; confrontational; step out of character
Beck's Cognitive Therapy
type of therapy: cognitive restructuring, daily record of dysfunctional beliefs, identify automatic thoughts, identify rational responses
Family Systems Theory
theory: "whole is greater than the sum of its parts" => an individual family member's problems cannot be understood and treated in isolation
Group Therapy
therapy: group members can become support group, helps clients realize they aren't alone
Psychopharmacology and Biomedical Therapies
therapy: use of drugs in treating psych disorders has steadily increased, neurons and synapse action
Schizophrenia Biomedical Therapy
therapy: antipsychotic medication targets positive symptoms side effect- tardive dyskinesia (not correctable facial tick); aytpical antipsychotics target positive and negative symptoms
antipsychotic medications
block dopamine receptor sites in the brain, reducing activity, improves control of severe symptoms
antidepressant drugs
monomamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) inhibits MAO enzyme that is involved in breaking down norepinephrine and serotonin (more of these left over elevates mood)
Tricyclic Antidepressants
most popular antidepressant, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's)
chemical that treats Bipolar Disorder by reducing manic attacks to as little as one every 9 years, unclear how it works, compliance issues
Anti-anxiety Drugs
most widely used legal drugs, Benodiazepines are most frequently prescribed, reduces anxiety by facilitating the action of the gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA), has inhibitory response to central nervous system
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
therapy: used to treat depression only now as last resort if patient can't tolerate drugs, brief electric shock is administered to brain to scramble signals, unclear why is effective
rarely used anymore, brain tissue worked on, now MRI-guided precision on specific areas with extreme care
Prefrontal Lobotomy
"scramble" prefrontal cortex, personality is drastically changed
Insurance Company Care
use most cost effective solution, choose drugs and therapists used, has significant effects on therapy effectiveness
Effects of Manage Care
cost-cutting introduced by HMO's means: long term therapies are rare, more referrals to therapists who aren't trained as extensively, less effective drugs prescribed
Psychotherapy's Positive Effects
brief therapy 50% improvement by 8th session, but more therapy=more improvement
Issues in evaluating treatment
outcome, control vs. generalizability, random assignment, compliance, consistency in therapy, magnitude/duration of effects