What do Goands secrete?
Steroid sex hormones - Androgens (males), Estrogens and Progesterone (females).
What do Sex Hormones play roles in?
Dvelopment and function of the reproductive organs, sexual behavior and drives, growth and development of many other organs and tissues.
How are sperm delivered?
Through a system of ducts - Epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra.
What are the accessory glands of the Male Reproductive System?
Seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands.
What are Sperm conveyed through?
Seminiferous tubules, tubulus rectum, rete testis, efferent ductules, epididymis.
What do the Seminal Vesicles produce?
Vicious alkaline seminal fluid - fructose, ascrobic acid, coagulating enzyme (vesiculase), and prostaglandins.
What does the duct of the seminal vesicle join with?
The ductus deferns to form the ejaculatory duct.
What does the Prostate secrete?
Milky, slightly acid fluid - contains citrate, enzymes, and prostate specific antigen (PSA).
What does the fluid produce by the prostate do?
Plays a role in the activation of sperm, enters the prostatic urethra during ejaculation.
What is the Bulbourethral Gland?
Pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate, produces thick - clear mucus prior to ejaculation.
What does the mucus produced by the bulbourethral gland do?
Lubricates the glans penis and neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra.
What does Semen do?
Contains nutrients (fructose), protects and activates sperm, and facilitaes their movement (e.g. relax - produced by prostate).
What are Prostaglandins?
Produced by seminal vesicles, decreases the viscosity of mucus in the cervix, stimulate reverse peristalsis in the uterus.
What is an Erection?
Enlargement and stiffening of the penis from engorgement of erectile tissue with blood.
What does the expansion of the Corpus Cavernosa do?
Compresses drainage veins and maintains engorgment.
What does the Sympathic spinal relfex cause?
Ducts and accessory glands to contract and empty their contents, bladder sphincter muscle to constrict, preventing the expulsion of urine, bulbospongiosus muscle to undergo a rapid series of contractions.
What is Spermatogensis?
Sequence of events that produces sperm in the seminiferous tubules o f the testes.
What do most body cells contain?
Two sets of chormosomes (one maternal, one paternal), 23 pairs of homolgous chromosomes.
What does FSH do?
Causes sustentacular cells to release androgen-binding protein (ABP), which makes permatogenic cell receptive to testosterone (enhances spermatogenesis).
What does Feedback inhibition on the hypothalamus and pituitary result from?
Rising levels of testosterone, inhibin (released when sperm count is high).
What is the Broad Ligament?
Supports the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina; also contains the suspensory ligament and mesovarium.
What are the two region of the ovaries?
Cortex: ovarian follicles, and Medulla: Large blood vessels and nerves.
What is a Follicle?
Immature egg (oocyte) surrounded by Follicle cells (on cell layer thick), and Granulosa cells (when more then one layer is present).
What are the stages of development of a Follicle?
Primordial Follicle, Primary Follicle, Secondary Follicle, Late Secondary Follicle.
What is the Late Secondary Follicle?
Contains fluid-filled space between granulosa cells; coalesces to form a central antrum.
What does the Cervical Canal Communicate with?
Vagina via the external OS, Uterine body via the internal OS.
What is the Stratum Functionalis of the Endometrium?
Functional layer - changes in response to ovarian hormone cycles. Is shed during menstruation.
What is the Statrum Basalis (basal layer) of the Endometrium?
Forms new functionalis after menstruation. Unresponsive to ovarian hormones.
What is the Vestibule?
Translates as entrance hall: reces s between labia minora. Contains the openins of the vagina and urethra.
What are the Greater Vestibular Glands?
Homolgous to the bulbourethral glands. Release mucus into the vestibule for lubrication.
What is the Perineum?
Diamond-shaped region between the pubic arch and coccyx, bordered laterally by the ischial tuberosities.
What are the risk factors of Breast Cancer?
Early onset of mestruation and late menopause, no pregnancies or first pregnancy late in life, family history of breast cancer.
How is Breast Cancer Treated?
Radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery followed by irradiation and chemotherapy.
What does declining estrogen levels result in?
Atrophy of reproductive organs and breasts, irritability and depression in some, hot flashes as skin blood vessels undergo intense vasodilation, gradual thinning of the skin and bone loss, increased total blood cholesterol levels and falling HDL.
What are STI's?
Sexually transmitted diseases, or venereal diseases. The single most important cause of reproductive disroders.
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Gonorrhea in Males?
Urethritis, painful urination, and discharge of pus.
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Gonorrhea in Females?
20% have no signs or symptoms. Abdominal discomfort, vaginal discharge or abnormal uterine bleeding. Can result in Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Sterility.
What is Syphilis?
Bacterial infection transmitted sexually occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex through direct contact with syphilis sore. Can be contracted or congential.
What are the Symptoms of Syphilis?
Infection is asymptomatic for 2 - 3 weeks. A painless chancre appears at the site of infection and disappears in a few weeks.
What is Chlamydia?
Most common bacterial STI. More than 1.2 million cases were reported in 2008. Responsible for 25 - 50% of all diagnosed cases of PID.
What are the Symptoms of Chlamydia?
Urethritis, penile and vaginal discharges, abdominal, rectal, or testicular pain; painful intercourse; irregular menses. - Can cause arthritis and UTI in men and sterility in Woman.