Adv Bio Classification and Origins Flash Cards

STUDY
PLAY
Classification
putting things into groups based on similarities
Binomial Nomenclature
a way of naming things using 2 names
Aristotle
first to try to classify living things and he only had two classes being plants and animals AND thought turtles come from river, fish come from leaves, snakes from sticks, maggots come from meat (200 BC)
Carolus Linnaeus
developed a simple method in which a name was reduced to two words being the genus name and specific epithet
Genus name
usually a Latinized translation of a common name for a group of similar organisms
Specific epithet
a Latinized adjective describing some feature of the species or its discoverer's name
Latin
language used because it is no longer spoken and words can't evolve/change
Advantages of taxonomic grouping
1. Provides a background or framework in which to compare species
2. Allows identification of many organisms, some of which may have medical or commercial value because they are related to other known resources
Taxons
groups of related organisms
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Mannalia
Order
Carnivora
Family
Canidae
Genus
Canis
Species
familaris
Archaea
1. Prokaryotes (no nucleus or internal organelles)
2. Live in extreme environments (swamps, deep sea vents, salt water)
3. Membrane lipids and cell wall structures are simpler
4. Some move, some don't
5. Chernosynthetic or photosynthetic
Eubacteria
1. Prokaryotes
2. Most harmful- these are the ones that cause disease, but many are helpful and most do not pose health risks to humans
3. Strong cell walls
4. Some move, some don't
5. Photosynthetic autotrophs or heterotrophs
Eukarya
is subdivided into protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia
Protista
a. All are single celled organisms
b. Can be heterotrophic or autotrophic
c. No tissue or organ systems
d. Moist environment
e. Most move
Fungi
a. All multicellular
b. Heterotrophic (saprophytic, meaning only eats dead material)
c. Doesn't move
d. Cellulose cell wall
e. No organ systems
Plantae
a. All multicellular
b. Autotrophic (photosynthetic)
c. Doesn't move
d. Cellulose cell wall
e. Tissue, organs, and organ systems
Animalia
a. All multicellular
b. All heterotrophic
c. All move at some point in life
d. No cell wall
e. Tissue, organs, and organ systems
Dichotomous Key
a set of paired statements that both cannot be simultaneously true. Used to identify organisms.
Spontaneous Generation
the idea that inanimate objects could come to life, given the proper circumstances
Van Helmont
mice from wheat grains and sweat (1620)
Needham
microorganisms appear in boiled broth in open and sealed flasks (1760)
Theory of Biogenesis
the idea that living things can only come from living things
Redi
placed meat in open and covered jars. Flies came and went from the open jar, but couldn't not touch the meat in the covered jar. Maggots appeared on the open jar's meat, but not the covered one's meat. Microscopes show eggs on the meat and on the covered and observation shows maggots-> flies. (1660)
Spallanzani
said Needham's flask were not boiled enough and poorly sealed (1760)
Pasteur
used gooseneck flasks to provide free flow of air over boiled broth and no growth of microorganisms occurred (1860)
Oparin's Heterotroph Hypothesis
to explain the origin of life, scientists had to look for another means, since Pasteur demonstrates that under current conditions on the planet, life can only arise biogenetically
hydrogen, ammonia, methane, and water vapor due to out gassing and cometary impact
Early Earth atmosphere was made of
Miller and Urey:
experimented to make amino acids. Small charges in the initial concentrations and the running time of the experiment made different organic molecules
heterotrophic protocels
they consume materials from outside themselves, become larger, break apart into smaller clumps, contain chemical reactions
carbon dioxide
Common product of organic molecule reactions is
Endosymbiotic Theory
1. There were many prokaryote life forms. Some did certain jobs better than others.
2. Oparin's prokaryotes were heterotrophs and autotrophs. The heterotrophs took in materials from outside themselves, and sometimes that included whole prokaryotes
3. Once inside, the prokaryotes were not digested, instead they began to do their old jobs in a new environment, inside a host
4. The new prokaryote host was more successful at surviving because it was more efficient