AP World History Unit 4
Unit Four: Global Interactions c. 1450 - c. 1750
Terms in this set (76)
Edict of Nantes
Grant of tolerance in France to French Protestants (Huguenots) after lengthy civil wars between Catholics and Protestants.
Government run by a religious group.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Holy Roman emperor and king of Spain as Charles I . He summoned the Diet of Worms and the Council of Trent. Also attempted to stop the spread of protestantism.
French Protestants (aka. Nobles who adopted Calvinism.)
King of England who broke from the Catholic Church because he wanted a divorce.
Protestant movement that gained popularity. Led by John Calvin. Believed in pre-destination.
Written by Marin Luther, was a list of grievances against the Catholic Church and were posted on the chruch door.
Divine forgiveness of your sins by the Church.
Peace of Augsburg
This was the treaty that was reached that ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars which also made Charles V recognize Lutheranism as a legitimate following. This ended the Catholic Persecution of the French Huguenots.
The Catholic Church's response to the Protestant Reformation in which it tried to reform itself.
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
The Scientific Revolution
A new way of thinking about the natural world. It was based on careful observation and a willingness to question accepted beliefs
Devised a model of the universe with the Sun at the center, and not earth.
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars.
German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion.
This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract"; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
French philosopher who believed that people are naturally good, but are corrupted by society.
This was an English feminist who supported the women's revolution in France
Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics
wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
the Enlighenment writer who believed in seperation of powers
Vasco de Gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
This was the first person to lead an expedition that circumnavigated the world
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
This explorer first saw the mainland of Brazil and claimed it for Portugal while sailing to set up trading posts in India
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty between Spain and Portugal dividing newly discovered lands between them
The Columbian Exchange
enormous widespread exchange of plants, animals, food, human population, diseases and ideas; one of the most significant events in the history of world ecology, agriculture and culture between America, Asia, Europe, and Africa.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Dutch East India Company
Controlled routes to the spice islands.
Trans-atlantic slave trade
Refers to the trade of slaves that took place across the atlantic ocean.
Trans-Saharan slave trade
A fairly small-scale trade that developed in the 12th century with west African slaves captured in raids being exported across the Sahara for sale mostly as household servants in Islamic North Africa.
Wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa.
The Reconquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.
A Spanish conqueror of the Americas
Reproduction by parents of different races.
A set of economic and political reforms introduced by the house of bourbon that were intended to make administration in the spanish colonies more efficient and their economies more productive.
This referred to the inefficient, slave-centered economy of the South where all land was used to grow large amounts of cash crops for export.
Land which Portugal later gained in the New World
*Increased taxes to support Persian wars.
*Demanded strict following of Islamic laws
*Tolerant of all religions
*Built the Taj Mahal
*Restored taxes Hindu's had to pay
The most famous Muslim ruler of India during the period of Mughal rule. Famous for his religious tolerance, his investment in rich cultural feats, and the creation of a centralized governmental administration, which was not typical of ancient and post-classical India.
Fifth Mogul emperor of India; He is remembered as the builder of the Taj Mahal
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death.
Religion founded by Nanak that blended Islamic and Hindu Beliefs.
The shi'ite muslim dynasty that ruled in persia between the 16th and 18th centuries. Carpet making was a major industry they created.
Military group that was developed by the Safavids to gain political power.
Shah Abbas the Great
Revitalized the Safavid empire. Moved his capital to the central Isfahan, and encouraged trade.
a group of Muslims that believe the ruler of Islam should be within the family of the prophet
Divided into two classes: the ruling class and the religious class.
in the ottoman empire, a religious community of non-Muslims
the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
Mary queen of scots
Catholic relative to Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England. She allegedly plotted with Spain's Philip II to overthrow Elizabeth and reassert Catholicism in England. Elizabeth had her beheaded.
Austrian empress who unified her nation after her father's death
Reestablished Protestantism as the state religion of England and she led the defeat of the Spanish Armada.
This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants.
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
*Governs people who share a common culture
*Has definite geographic boundaries
*Enjoys sovereignty - Freedom to rule themselves.
first Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris.
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France.
Peter The Great
Tsar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
*Tsars insisted Russia had succeeded Byzantium as a "third Rome".
*Following the death of Tsar Ivan IV, russia entered a politically disturbed era known as the Time of Troubles
*Peter the Great and Catherine the Great modernized/westernized Russia.
Age of Absolutism
Time period where kings and queens ruled domains with total control over their people.
Central asian nomadic people; spread all over asia and Europe spreading their empire while pillaging.
the Ming Dynasty came to power after after China had been ruled by the Mongols then a group called the red turbans attacked the Mongols in the Mid-1300s and a peasant rebellion began and they over threw the Mongols or the Yuan Dynasty.
Chinese admiral who led seven overseas trade expeditions under Ming emperor Yunglo between 1405 and 1423; demonstrated that the Chinese were capable of major ocean exploration. After the ascension of Zhu Di's son as the Hongxi Emperor, the ocean voyages were discontinued
Asian sea trading network
Divided, from West to East, into three zones prior to the European arrival: an Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; an Indian zone, with cotton textiles; and a Chinese zone, with paper, porcelain, and silks.
A nomadic people who established a state that included parts of northern China. Seized power following the fall of the ming dynasty.
Japanese ruling dynasty that strove to isolate it from foreign influences. shogunate started by Tokugawa Leyasu; 4 class system, warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants; Japan's ports were closed off; wanted to create their own culture; illegal to fight; merchants became rich because domestic trade flourished (because fighting was illegal)
Social classes in Tokugawa Japan