Home
Subjects
Explanations
Create
Study sets, textbooks, questions
Log in
Sign up
Upgrade to remove ads
Only $2.99/month
Social Science
Psychology
Experimental Psychology
UNIT 2 RESEARCH METHODS
STUDY
Flashcards
Learn
Write
Spell
Test
PLAY
Match
Gravity
Terms in this set (44)
Critical Thinking
Does not blindly accept conclusions with no evidence
Hindsight Bias
Tendency to view events as more predictable than they really are
Coincidence Error
Tendency to perceive order in random events
Theory
Statement- Explanation using principles predicts observations
Hypothesis
Question- Relationship between two variables
Operational Definition
How variables are measured and what techniques are used in a study
Translate the concept into some type of numerical score
Replication
Repeating the essence of a research study
Case Study
Study one or more individuals in great depth
Generalizations, about behavior are made (bias)
Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior without trying to manipulate the situation
Survey/Wording Effects
Ascertaining attitudes or behaviors of people
Visually by questioning a sample
Wording can change the results of a survery
Sampling Bias
Flawed sampling produces an unrepresentative sample
Population
Group, from which samples are drawn
Random Sample
Closely parallels the population
Random Selection
Equal chance of being selected (unbiased)
Helps avoid false results
Correlational Studies
Relationship between two variables
Does not show causation
Correlation
How well one factor predicts the other
Correlation Coefficient
Statistical measure of the relationship between two variables
Range -1 to +1 weaker then closer to zero
Positive Correlation
Vary systematically in the SAME direction
Negative Correlation
Vary systematically in OPPOSITE direction
Scatterplots
Graph depicts the strength of the relationship
Illusory Correlation
Perception of a relationship
Correlation does not mean causation
Experiments
Exploring cause and effect
Experimental Condition (Group)
Exposes participants to the treatment
Control Condition (Group)
Contrasts with the experimental treatment comparison
Random Assignment
Create multiple study groups that include participants with similar characteristics so groups are equivalent at the beginning of the study
Double-Blind Procedure
Both participants and staff are ignorant (blind) about treatment or a placebo
Placebo/Placebo Effect
Insert substance or condition administered, to see if it triggers the effect
Can sometimes improve condition because person has expectation
Independent Variable
Factor that is being manipulated
Cofounding Variable
Extraneous variable affects results do not reflect the actual relationship
Depending Variable
Factor that may change in response to manipulation
A behavior or mental process
Validity
Extent to which a test or experiment measures or predicts what it is supposed to
Descriptive Statistics
Describes or displays a set of data
Histogram
A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution
Mean
Average
Extreme scores or outlines can distort the mean
Mode
Most
Median
Middle
Normal Distribution
Mean, Median, and mode are all the same
Skewed Distribution
Positive Skew (contains more low scores)
Positive mean>median
Negative Skew ( contains more high scores)
Negative mean<median
Range
Difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Standard Deviation
Corrupted measure of how much scores vary around the mean
Higher the SD, the more spread out the distribution
Inferential Statistics
Draw conclusions from data
Statistical Significance
Differences in results between the experiment and control groups could have occurred by chance is no more than 5 percent
At least 95% certain the differences between groups is due to the independent variable
P-value less than 0.05
informed consent
research participants be told enough to enable them to choose
Debriefing
Post experimental explanation of a study
Recommended textbook explanations
Understanding Psychology
2nd Edition
McGraw-Hill Education
903 explanations
Psychology
11th Edition
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
359 explanations
Understanding Psychology
1st Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
820 explanations
Psychology
2nd Edition
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
841 explanations
Sets found in the same folder
UNIT 5 CONSCIOUSNESS
18 terms
Unit 7 Cognition
71 terms
AP Psych Prologue
20 terms
Psychology Semester Exam Review
96 terms
Sets with similar terms
Psych Chapter 2 The Research Enterprise In Psychol…
55 terms
AP Psychology: Chapter #2 Research Metho…
54 terms
Unit 2: Research Methods
39 terms
AP Psych Unit 3 Vocab
45 terms
Other sets by this creator
Japanese - Genki Chapter 5
55 terms
Genki Japanese Chapter 4
57 terms
Genki Japanese Chapter 3
54 terms
Genki Japanese Chapter 2
40 terms
Other Quizlet sets
Economics Unit 1 Test Review
51 terms
3B Midterm
26 terms
Honors Government: The Executive Branch
41 terms
Music in Different Cultures
14 terms