53 terms

AP World History Chapter 5

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Revival in China
Buddhism has made a major comeback in he recent years and Christianity is growing
Cultural Traditions
each of the regions of the world began developing very important cultural tradition, many of which focus on religion
Age of Warring States
403-221 B.C.E.
a period in China of total chaos
Legalism
a school of thought that focuses on clearly spelled out and strictly enforced rules
Confucius
-best know Chinese thinker
-emphasized moral character
-"A man who lives in a glass house should not throw stones."
-not a religious person
Confucianism
-nonreligious teachings
-stated that life was about unequal relationships
-became the official Chinese school of thought
-developed by Confucius
How does Confucius define people according to his teachings?
Confucius defines people by their superior or inferior positions according to the people around them. In his teachings, the roles were clearly states as to which were superior an inferior to others. Ex: A child would be inferior to his father. The father would be superior to his child.
What did people have to do in order to follow Confucius's teachings?
People who wanted to follow Confucianism had to practice their superiority and inferiority when around others. They had to be aware of these new, strict laws that had been put into place and the harsh punishments that came if you broke a law.
What role does propriety or ritual play in the making of a virtuous man according to Confucianism?
Propriety and rituals made a man virtuous by educating him on what it meant to not overstep what is right. The Rules of Propriety should always be held in high regards as well.
What understanding of "learning" or education came thought Confucius's teachings?
Confucius taught that with education comes great power and wealth. He phrased it as "The superiors man, extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety, may thus likewise not overstep what is right."
What is "filial piety" and why is it so important in Confucius's understanding of a good society?
Filial piety determines the moral value of a person in society, which is why Confucianism was so popular in China in it's earlier years. Emperors enjoyed when his people treated him as they would an elder or a parent.
How do "virtue," "filial piety," and "learning" relate to the larger task of creating a good government or a harmonious society in the eyes of Confucius?
These all bring people together to work, respect one another, respect their society.
How does Confucius understand the role of the supernatural-gods, spirits, and ancestors for example?
Confucius believed that it didn't matter what gods you believed in or what religion you are. He believed that we all eventually go to the same place in the end.
Family Life
-elders were the most respected
-family was highly valued
-traditions of visiting graves of loved ones with offerings
-family was the centerpiece of Chinese life (living or dead)
Laozi
the founder of Daoism and considered a legendary character
Daoism
-founded by Laozi
-the opposite of Confucianism
-claimed that you should withdraw from society and become one with nature
Dao
an elusive notion that refers to the way of nature or simple life
Yin and Yang
an expression of unity of opposites
Yellow Turban Rebellion
a rebellion in China in 184 C.E. led by peasants that wanted less government control
Describe several key characteristics of Hinduism.
-preaches about living life in a natural way
-equality for genders
-nothing is mandatory and everything is scripture based
emphasizes on Karma
-infinite number of gods
-believes that you're born into a certain cast
Explain how Buddhism is similar and different from Hinduism, and how it developed in India.
Similarities:
-began in India
-are polytheistic
-believed in reincarnation
Differences:
-Moksha: takes more than one life to reach in Hinduism
-Nirvana: enlightenment can be reached in one lifetime
How they developed in India:
-came from philosophies, beliefs, and practices that spread to India
Explain several reasons why Buddhism died out in India and the role of the new form of Hinduism played.
-many Buddhist flocked to Nepal, Tibet, and southern India to avoid war
-many of their monks were put to death
-Many flocked to Hinduism because of their ideas about reincarnation
Summarize the monotheistic teachings of Zoroastrianism that developed in Persia.
-an ancient pre-Islamic religion
-taught the existence of angels, demons, and saviors similar to many other religions
-they use the Avesta as their sacred text
Describe how/where Judaism developed, and how it was different from other religions.
-developed in Israel
-had a perfect literacy rate
-was monotheistic
Avesta
the sacred book of Zoroastrianism that contained hymns, rituals, and spells against demons
Moksha
-Hindu version of heaven
-believed to take more than one life to reach
Nirvana
-Buddhist version of heaven
-believed to be able to be reached in one lifetime
Greek Thinkers
-very famous for what they taught
-many thoughts were based on secularism
-major component of the Greek civilizations
Secularism
nonreligious ideas
Key Elements
emphasized on logic, questioning of wisdom, asking questions in general, and confidence in human reasoning (four main points of Greek culture)
Socrates
-early Greek thinker
-best known for questioning authority
-put on trial for "poisoning the youth"
-put to death
Hippocrates
-a scientist
-studied the human body and medicine
-founder of the Hippocratic Oath
Plato
- a student
-wrote "The Republic" (a design for a great society)
-said that a great society should be rules by a highly educated people with a philosopher king
Aristotle
-a student of Plato
-a teachers of Alexander the Great
-wrote and studied about everything
-famous for his reflections on ethics
Spread of Greek Culture
1. Roman Empire facilitated the spread
2. Christianity
Christianity
the religion that started with the life of Jesus and spread slowly at first but later expanded exponentially
Jesus & Buddha similarities
-were considered teachers of wisdom
-opposed to the love of money
-challenged the teachings of their time
-taught love and compassion
Jesus & Buddha differences
-Jesus had a direct connection to God
-Buddha ignored the supernatural
-Jesus's teachings were more critical
-Jesus taught more about helping the poor
St. Paul
-used to be named Saul
-killed Christians before he was renamed to Paul
-had a revolution with God and lost his sight
-regained his sight and became one of the most famous Christians in the Bible
-major reason for the spread of Christianity
Roman persecution
-did not support Christianity
-Romans were polytheistic which Christians were monotheistic
-many leaders were killed or thrown in jail
Emperor Constantine
the Roman emperor who converted to Christianity and ended the persecution of Christians in 300 B.C.E. when he made Christianity the official religion of Rome
Spread of Christianity
all of Europe eventually converted to Christianity
Hierarchical structure of church
-male dominated
-with bishops in five major cities of the Roman Empire
-Alexandria, Rome, Athens, and two more
What three cultural traditions came out of the Warring States period, and how do they differ from one another?
Confucianism:
-nonreligious teachings
-stated that life was about unequal relationships
-became the official Chinese school of thought
-developed by Confucius

Legalism:
a school of thought that focuses on clearly spelled out and strictly enforced rules

Daoism:
-founded by Laozi
-the opposite of Confucianism
-claimed that you should withdraw from society and become one with nature
What are the key differences between Theravada and Mahayana expressions of Buddhism?
Theravada
-it's goal is to liberate all things from suffering
-the traditional version
-believed that Buddha was a man, but was enlightened

Mahayana:
-it's goal is to liberate your own suffering
-believed Buddha was a god
What were some of the most important legacies of Greek culture?
-the Greek alphabet
-the Olympic Games
-Hippocrates:
-a scientist
-studied the human body and medicine
-founder of the Hippocratic Oath
-the idea of democracy and democratic law
-architecture
-styles of warfare
-artistry
In what ways were the various religions and philosophical traditions that emerged from 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. gendered?
-most religions believed in either male dominance or equal relationships

-Religions and philosophies that were gendered:
-Legalism
-Confucianism
-Buddhism
-Christianity
-Religions and philosophies that were not gendered:
-Daoism
-Hinduism
-Zoroastrianism
-Judaism
How did some of the religious and philosophical traditions that emerged from 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. reflect or perpetuate class differences?
-Caste System: a class structure that is determined by birth. Ex: If your parents are poor, you're going to be poor, too.
-Hinduism supported the Caste System
-Buddhism rejected the Caste System
-Confucianism was indifferent in supporting or rejecting it.
Compare and contrast Greek rationalism with the Chinese philosophies that emerged in the Warring States period.
Confucianism:
-nonreligious teachings
-stated that life was about unequal relationships
-became the official Chinese school of thought
-developed by Confucius

Legalism:
a school of thought that focuses on clearly spelled out and strictly enforced rules

Daoism:
-founded by Laozi
-the opposite of Confucianism
-claimed that you should withdraw from society and become one with nature

-Legalism and Confucianism were both strongly focused on government, while government was only a minor issue for the Greek philosophers.
-Greek Thinkers: Socrates, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle
-Chinese Thinkers: Confucius
Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the Second-Wave era?
-has precedents in the Second-Wave Era
-many philosophers focused their teachings on nonreligious subjects
-Confucianism was the major nonreligious teaching. (explain Confucianism as well)
How would you define the appeal of religion/cultural traditions discussed in this chapter? To what groups were they attractive, and why?
People were attracted to different religions and cultural traditions based on their social statues and genders. Ex: Women would be attracted to religions that were not gendered. Lower class people would look to religions with enlightenment ideas and concepts. Higher class people would look for religions that could use their wealth to make them more powerful.
In what was did these religions or cultural traditions define a purpose of human life?
-Legalism: to create a perfect government system
-Confucianism: to create a perfect society
-Buddhism: to eliminate suffering
-Christianity: to spread the religion and make it to Heaven
-Daoism: to became one with nature
-Hinduism: to attain Moksha
-Zoroastrianism: to gain eternal enlightenment
-Judaism: to "repair the world"
What different answers the problem of disorders arose in classical China?
1. Confucianism:
-nonreligious teachings
-stated that life was about unequal relationships
-became the official Chinese school of thought
-developed by Confucius

2. Legalism:
a school of thought that focuses on clearly spelled out and strictly enforced rules

3. Daoism:
-founded by Laozi
-the opposite of Confucianism
-claimed that you should withdraw from society and become one with nature