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78 terms

AP US History Vocab

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Separatist vs. non-separatist puritans
Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separatists (pilgrims) argued from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth
Northwest Passage
believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in the race to Asian wealth
Conversion Experience
Required of members of the Puritan Church, took the place of baptism required by the Catholic Church
Social Reciprocity
society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminantly
Church of England
Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of the Catholic Church, tended toward Catholicism during reign of Catholic royalty
Atlantic slave trade
often debtors sold to slave traders by African kings seeking riches, Columbian Exchange
Jamestown
first permanent English settlement in the Americas
Indentured servants
settlers pay the expenses of a servant's voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over; headright system
Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)
mandated toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)
James I, Charles I
reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors
William Penn and the Quakers
settled in Pennsylvania, believed the "Inner Light" could speak though an person and ran religious services without ministers
Roger Williams
Challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church
Anne Hutchinson
Challenged New England Calvinist ministers' authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism
The Half-Way Covenant
New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints
Bacon's Rebellion
rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans
John Smith
introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks
Pocahontas
key to English-Native American relationship, died in England in 1617
Mayflower Compact
foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land
John Winthrop
Calvanist, devised concept of "city on a hill" ("A Model of Christian Charity"); founded highly successful towns in Massachusetts Bay
"City on a Hill"
exemplary Christian community, rich to show charity, held to Calvanistic beliefs
Bacon's Rebellion
Rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans
Navigation Acts
only English and American ships allowed to colonial ports; dissent began in 1763
Mercanilism
ensured trade with mother country, nationalism; too restrictive on colonial economy, not voted on by colonists
Charles II, James II
tried to rule as absolute monarchs without using Parliament, little to no sympathy for colonial legislatures
William and Mary
ended the Dominion of New England, gave power back to colonies
Dominion of New England
combined Mass, NH, Conn, RI, and Plymouth (and later NJ and NY) into one colony governed by Sir Edmond Andros
The Glorious Revolution
William and Mary kicked James II out of England (exiled into France), allowed more power to the legislatures
James Oglethorpe
established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors
The Enlightenment
emphasis on human reason, logic, and science (acquired, no nascent knowledge); increased followers of Christianity
Benjamin Franklin
connected the colonies to Britain, opposed to unnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan
The Great Awakening
began by Edwards to return to Puritanism, increased overall religious involvement, gave women more active roles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughout the country; mainly affected towns and cities
Deists
(Great Awakening) believed that God created the universe to act through natural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine
George Whitefield
powerful speaker, toured the country and inspired many into Christianity
Jonathan Edwards
Puritan minister, led revivals, stressed immediate repentance
New Lights vs Old Lights
New Lights brought new ideas, rejected by Old Lights, both sought out institutions independent of each other
Albany Plan of Union
colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, "Grand Council"); never took effect
French and Indian War
French threat at the borders was no longer present, therefore the colonies did't need English protection more independent stand against Britain
Proclamation of 1763
prohibited settlements west of Appalachians, restriction on colonial growth
Salutary Neglect
Parliament took minor actions in the colonies. allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements
Writs of Assistance
search warrants on shipping to reduce smuggling; challenged by James Otis
Townshend Act (1767)
similar to Navigation Act; raised money to pay colonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries
Sugar Act
increased tariff on sugar (and other imports), attempted to harder enforce existing tariffs
Stamp Act
taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, not approved by colonists through their representatives
Stamp Act congress
held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed
Virginia Resolves
"no taxation without representation" introduced by Patrick Henry
Currency Act
prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy
Virtual Representation
all English subjects are represented in Parliament, including those not allowed to vote
The Loyal Nine
group of Bostonians in opposition to the Stamp Act, sought to drive stamp distributors from the city
Sons of Liberty
organized and controlled resistance against Parliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom), advocated non-importation
Declaratory Act
allowed Parliament to completely legislate over the colonies, limited colonists' say
Boston Massacre
British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fighters, two of nine soldiers found guilty of manslaughter
Committees of Correspondence
committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters; asserted right to self-government. cooperation between colonies
Tea Act (1773)
intended to save British East India Company from bankruptcy, could sell directly to consumers rather through wholesalers (lower prices to compete with smuggled tea)
Boston Tea Party
peaceful destruction of British tea in Boston Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians
Quebec Acts
former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
In reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closing of Boston Harbor, revocation of Massachusetts charter, murder in the name of royal authority would be tried in England or another colony
Suffolk Resolves
organize militia, end trade with Britain, refuse to pay taxes to Britain
Olive Branch Petition
politely demanded from the king a ceasefire in Boston, repeal of Coercive Acts, guarantee of American rights
Thomas Paine and Common Sense
stressed to the American people British maltreatment and emphasize a need for revolution; appealed to American emotions
George Washington
American commander-in -chief; first president, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchical style rule
Whigs (patriots)
most numerous in New England, fought for independence
Tories (loyalists)
fought for return to colonial rule, usually conservative (educated and wealthy)
Battle of Yorktown
last major battle of Rev War, surrender of Cornwallis, led King George III to officially make peace with the colonies
British strengths and weaknesses
British citizenship outnumbered colonies', large navy and professional army, exhausted resources (hessians hired), national debt
Colonial strengths and weaknesses
fair amount of troops, short guerrilla tactics, strong leaders (Washington), nonprofessional army that could not handle long battles
Battle of Saratoga
American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne
Valley Forge
scarce supplies (food and clothing), army motivated by von Steuben
Treaty of Paris(1783)
full American independence, territory west of Appalachian ceded to America, loyalists to be compensated for seized property, fishing rights off of Newfoundland
Articles of Confederation
states joined for foreign affairs, Congress reined supreme (lacked executive and judicial), one vote per state, 2/3 vote for bills, unanimous for amendments, too much power to states, unable to regulate commerce or taxes
Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom (1786)
foundation for First Amendment, offered free choice of religion, not influenced by state
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
defined process for territories to become states (pop=60,000), forbade slavery in new territories
Alexander Hamilton
pushed for federal assumption of state debts, pushed for National Bank, loose constructionist, Federalist leader
James Madison
strong central government, separation of powers, "extended republic"
Shay's Rebellion
mistreated farmers, fear of mobocracy, forced people to think about central government
Connecticut Compromise
advocated by Roger Sherman, proposed two independently-voting senators per state and representation in the House based on population
VA plan
bicameral congressional representation based on population
New Jersey Plan
equal representation in unicameral congress
Commerce Compromise
congress could tax imports but not exports