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Separatist vs. non-separatist puritans

Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separatists (pilgrims) argued from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth

Northwest Passage

believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in the race to Asian wealth

Conversion Experience

Required of members of the Puritan Church, took the place of baptism required by the Catholic Church

Social Reciprocity

society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminantly

Church of England

Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of the Catholic Church, tended toward Catholicism during reign of Catholic royalty

Atlantic slave trade

often debtors sold to slave traders by African kings seeking riches, Columbian Exchange


first permanent English settlement in the Americas

Indentured servants

settlers pay the expenses of a servant's voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over; headright system

Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)

mandated toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)

James I, Charles I

reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors

William Penn and the Quakers

settled in Pennsylvania, believed the "Inner Light" could speak though an person and ran religious services without ministers

Roger Williams

Challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church

Anne Hutchinson

Challenged New England Calvinist ministers' authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism

The Half-Way Covenant

New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints

Bacon's Rebellion

rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans

John Smith

introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks


key to English-Native American relationship, died in England in 1617

Mayflower Compact

foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land

John Winthrop

Calvanist, devised concept of "city on a hill" ("A Model of Christian Charity"); founded highly successful towns in Massachusetts Bay

"City on a Hill"

exemplary Christian community, rich to show charity, held to Calvanistic beliefs

Bacon's Rebellion

Rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans

Navigation Acts

only English and American ships allowed to colonial ports; dissent began in 1763


ensured trade with mother country, nationalism; too restrictive on colonial economy, not voted on by colonists

Charles II, James II

tried to rule as absolute monarchs without using Parliament, little to no sympathy for colonial legislatures

William and Mary

ended the Dominion of New England, gave power back to colonies

Dominion of New England

combined Mass, NH, Conn, RI, and Plymouth (and later NJ and NY) into one colony governed by Sir Edmond Andros

The Glorious Revolution

William and Mary kicked James II out of England (exiled into France), allowed more power to the legislatures

James Oglethorpe

established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors

The Enlightenment

emphasis on human reason, logic, and science (acquired, no nascent knowledge); increased followers of Christianity

Benjamin Franklin

connected the colonies to Britain, opposed to unnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan

The Great Awakening

began by Edwards to return to Puritanism, increased overall religious involvement, gave women more active roles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughout the country; mainly affected towns and cities


(Great Awakening) believed that God created the universe to act through natural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine

George Whitefield

powerful speaker, toured the country and inspired many into Christianity

Jonathan Edwards

Puritan minister, led revivals, stressed immediate repentance

New Lights vs Old Lights

New Lights brought new ideas, rejected by Old Lights, both sought out institutions independent of each other

Albany Plan of Union

colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, "Grand Council"); never took effect

French and Indian War

French threat at the borders was no longer present, therefore the colonies did't need English protection more independent stand against Britain

Proclamation of 1763

prohibited settlements west of Appalachians, restriction on colonial growth

Salutary Neglect

Parliament took minor actions in the colonies. allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements

Writs of Assistance

search warrants on shipping to reduce smuggling; challenged by James Otis

Townshend Act (1767)

similar to Navigation Act; raised money to pay colonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries

Sugar Act

increased tariff on sugar (and other imports), attempted to harder enforce existing tariffs

Stamp Act

taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, not approved by colonists through their representatives

Stamp Act congress

held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed

Virginia Resolves

"no taxation without representation" introduced by Patrick Henry

Currency Act

prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy

Virtual Representation

all English subjects are represented in Parliament, including those not allowed to vote

The Loyal Nine

group of Bostonians in opposition to the Stamp Act, sought to drive stamp distributors from the city

Sons of Liberty

organized and controlled resistance against Parliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom), advocated non-importation

Declaratory Act

allowed Parliament to completely legislate over the colonies, limited colonists' say

Boston Massacre

British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fighters, two of nine soldiers found guilty of manslaughter

Committees of Correspondence

committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters; asserted right to self-government. cooperation between colonies

Tea Act (1773)

intended to save British East India Company from bankruptcy, could sell directly to consumers rather through wholesalers (lower prices to compete with smuggled tea)

Boston Tea Party

peaceful destruction of British tea in Boston Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians

Quebec Acts

former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England

Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)

In reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closing of Boston Harbor, revocation of Massachusetts charter, murder in the name of royal authority would be tried in England or another colony

Suffolk Resolves

organize militia, end trade with Britain, refuse to pay taxes to Britain

Olive Branch Petition

politely demanded from the king a ceasefire in Boston, repeal of Coercive Acts, guarantee of American rights

Thomas Paine and Common Sense

stressed to the American people British maltreatment and emphasize a need for revolution; appealed to American emotions

George Washington

American commander-in -chief; first president, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchical style rule

Whigs (patriots)

most numerous in New England, fought for independence

Tories (loyalists)

fought for return to colonial rule, usually conservative (educated and wealthy)

Battle of Yorktown

last major battle of Rev War, surrender of Cornwallis, led King George III to officially make peace with the colonies

British strengths and weaknesses

British citizenship outnumbered colonies', large navy and professional army, exhausted resources (hessians hired), national debt

Colonial strengths and weaknesses

fair amount of troops, short guerrilla tactics, strong leaders (Washington), nonprofessional army that could not handle long battles

Battle of Saratoga

American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne

Valley Forge

scarce supplies (food and clothing), army motivated by von Steuben

Treaty of Paris(1783)

full American independence, territory west of Appalachian ceded to America, loyalists to be compensated for seized property, fishing rights off of Newfoundland

Articles of Confederation

states joined for foreign affairs, Congress reined supreme (lacked executive and judicial), one vote per state, 2/3 vote for bills, unanimous for amendments, too much power to states, unable to regulate commerce or taxes

Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom (1786)

foundation for First Amendment, offered free choice of religion, not influenced by state

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

defined process for territories to become states (pop=60,000), forbade slavery in new territories

Alexander Hamilton

pushed for federal assumption of state debts, pushed for National Bank, loose constructionist, Federalist leader

James Madison

strong central government, separation of powers, "extended republic"

Shay's Rebellion

mistreated farmers, fear of mobocracy, forced people to think about central government

Connecticut Compromise

advocated by Roger Sherman, proposed two independently-voting senators per state and representation in the House based on population

VA plan

bicameral congressional representation based on population

New Jersey Plan

equal representation in unicameral congress

Commerce Compromise

congress could tax imports but not exports

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