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Terms in this set (41)
Organ systems function together to form an organism.
In its broadest sense, biology is the study of living things, the science of life.
Organisms in the same kingdoms have similar characteristics to the other organisms in the kingdom. The organisms in one kingdom have very different characteristics than the others.
Biologists assign all living things to six major categories called kingdoms.
This kingdom of prokaryotes(simple cells that do not have nuclei) includes this methanogen, which manufactures methane.
the second of the two prokaryotic kingdoms. They are able to convert light energy into chemical energy.
Most unicellular eukaryotes(cells that contain a nucleus), and multicellular algae.
Contains non-photosynthetic organisms, mostly multicellular, that digest their food externally. Example: Mushrooms.
Contains photosynthetic multicellular organisms that are primary terrestrial.
Non-photosynthetic multicellular organisms that digest their food internally.
5 Characteristics of Living things:
1. Cellular organization
4. Growth and reproduction
All living things are composed of one or more cells.
-A cell is a tiny compartment with a thin covering called a membrane.Some cells have simple interiors, while others are complexly organized, but all are able to grow and reproduce.
All living things use energy. Moving, growing, thinking—everything you do requires energy. Energy is captured from sunlight by plants, algae, and certain bacteria through photosynthesis. To get the energy that powers our lives, we extract it from plants or from animals that eat plants or that eat plant-eating animals. The transfer of energy from one form to another in cells is an example of metabolism.
organisms act to keep their interior conditions relatively constant using a process called homeostasis. For example, your body acts to maintain an internal temperature of about 37˚C (98.6˚F), regardless of how hot or cold the weather might be. Stable internal conditions allow other complex body processes to be better coordinated.
Growth and reproduction
All living things grow and reproduce. Bacteria increase in size and simply split in two, as often as every 15 minutes. More complex organisms grow by increasing the number of cells and reproduce sexually by producing gametes that combine, giving rise to offspring.
All organisms possess a genetic system that is based on a long molecule called DNA. The information that determines what an individual organism will be like is contained in a code that is dictated by the order of the subunits making up the DNA molecule. DNA is faithfully copied from one generation to the next, and so any change in a gene is preserved and passed on to future generations. The transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring is a process called heredity.
Three levels of complexity
The structures within cells get more and more complex. There is a hierarchy of increasing complexity within cells.
The fundamental elements of matter are atoms.
Atoms are joined together into complex clusters called molecules.
Large complex molecules are called macromolecules, such as DNA that stores hereditary information.
Complex biological molecules are assembled into tiny compartments within cells called organelles, such as the nucleus within which the cell's DNA is stored.
Organelles and other elements are assembled into membrane-bounded units we call cells. Cells are the smallest level of organization that can be considered alive.
At the organismal level, cells are organized into four levels of complexity.
The most basic level is that of tissues, which are groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit. Nerve tissue is one kind of tissue, composed of cells called neurons that carry electrical signals.
Tissues, in turn, are grouped into organs, which are body structures composed of several different tissues that form a structural and functional unit. Your brain is an organ composed of nerve cells and a variety of tissues that form protective coverings and distribute blood.
At the third level of organization, organs are grouped into organ systems. The nervous system, for example, consists of sensory organs, the brain and spinal cord, neurons that convey signals throughout the body, and supporting cells.
Organisms are further organized into several hierarchical levels within the living world, as you can see to the right.
The most basic of these is the population, which is a group of organisms of the same species living in the same place. A flock of geese living together on a pond is a population.
All the populations of a particular kind of organism together form a species, its members similar in appearance and able to interbreed. All Canada geese are members of the species Branta canadensis. Sandhill cranes are a different species.
At a higher level of biological organization, a community consists of all the populations of different species living together in one place. Geese, for example, may share their pond with ducks, fish, grasses, and many kinds of insects.
At the highest tier of biological organization, a biological community and the soil and water within which it lives together constitute an ecological system, or ecosystem.
An emergent property is a property which a collection or complex system has, but which the individual members do not have. An emergent property is a characteristic an entity gains when it becomes part of a bigger system. Emergent properties help living organisms better adapt to their environments and increase their chances of survival.
At each higher level in the living hierarchy, novel properties emerge, properties that were not present at simpler levels. These emergent properties result from the way in which components interact and are the natural consequence of the hierarchy and structural organization of life. Functional properties emerge from more complex organization.
Examples of Emergent Properties
*Metabolism is an emergent property of life. The chemical reactions within a cell arise from interactions between molecules that are orchestrated by the orderly environment of the cell's interior
*Consciousness is an emergent property of the brain that results from the interactions of many neurons in different parts of the brain.
***(need my own example) For example, when carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen combine in a certain way, lipids are formed. Lipids are capable of forming cell membranes that separate living cells from the environment. Membrane formation is an emergent property not found in the molecules that make them, and without cell membranes, life could not exist.
5 Biological themes that unify and explain biology
*The flow of energy
*Structure determines function
Evolution is genetic change in a species over time. Simply stated, those organisms whose characteristics make them better able to survive the challenges of their environment live to reproduce, passing their favorable characteristics onto their offspring. Thus, the many forms of life we see about us on earth today and the way we ourselves are constructed and function reflect a long history of natural selection.
The Flow of Energy
All of the energy used by most organisms comes from the sun and is passed in one direction through ecosystems. The first stage of energy's journey is its capture by green plants, algae, and some bacteria by the process of photosynthesis. Plants then serve as a source of life-driving energy for animals that eat them. Other animals, may then eat the plant eaters. At each stage, some energy is used for the processes of living, some is transferred, and much is lost primarily as heat.
This type of cooperation has played a critical role in the evolution of life on earth. For example, organisms of two different species that live in direct contact, such as the ants and the plant on which they live, form a type of relationship called symbiosis.
Structure Determines Function
One of the most obvious lessons of biology is that biological structures are very well suited to their functions. You will see this at every level of organization. Within the many kinds of organisms in the living world, body structures seem carefully designed to carry out their functions.
The high degree of specialization we see among complex organisms is possible only because these organisms act to maintain a relatively stable internal environment.
The Scientific Method
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