English quest 2
Terms in this set (73)
What is rhetoric and how did Aristotle define it
Aristotle said that it is the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion. Rhetoric is the art of finding ways of persuading an audience
What is a common connotation of rhetoric
It is manipulating. But you can always ask yourself how is this trying to persuade me as an informed member of society
What are texts
Usually means written word, but it has come to mean any cultural products that can be read. Not just consumed and comprehended but also investigated. This can include fiction, nonfiction, poetry, political cartoons, art photography, performances, fashion, cultural trends
Who is the speaker
Person or group who creates a text
What is the purpose
The goal that the speaker wants to achieve
Who is the audience
The listener, viewer, or reader of the text or performance. There may be multiple audiences
What is the claim
The argument's main idea or position. It is different from a topic or subject because a claim must be arguable
What is evidence
The support for your reasons.
What are the types of evidence to support reasons
Facts, statistics, testimony by authorities and expert's, anecdotal evidence, case studies or observations, or textual evidence
What are counter arguments
Argument or set of reasons that oppose a claim developed in another argument
What are rhetorical appeals
Attempts by speaker to persuade an audience. Aristotle identified the rhetorical appeals
What is ethos
ethical argument. Is Greek for character. speaker appeals to ethos to demonstrate they are credible and trustworthy on the topic.
Speaker must have qualifications or authority. Can be explicit title or credential or a less formal expertise or experience. This shows that we are qualified to speak on the matter.
What are other ways to appeal to ethos besides authority
Can appeal with the context of what they say. Making them sound logical and reasonable to make them appear qualified. They can also demonstrate shared values with the audience
What is logos
Logical argument. Greek for embodied thought. appear to logos or reason by putting forth clear and rational ideas that have specific details examples facts studies testimony or statistics.
What is pathos
Emotional argument. Greek for suffering or experience. Emotionally motivates the audience. Appeals to a motions, desires, values, hopes, or fears. Speaker understands power of evoking audience emotion by using figurative language and vivid images
What is the difference between a rhetorical appeal and a rhetorical device
A rhetorical appeal is the attempts by a speaker to persuade an audience. Ethos, logos, and pathos.
A rhetorical device is a specific technique that the speaker uses to attempt to persuade an audience. They are patterns of words and ideas that create emphasis, clarify meaning, and stir emotions
What is allusion
A reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art
What is an Anaphora
Repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive sentences, clauses, or phrases
What is antithesis
Juxtaposition of strongly contrasting words images or ideas
What is a juxtaposition
Two completely opposite ideas or series of words right next to each other
What is exclamation
And emotional statement, indicated in text by The use of an exclamation mark
What is a metaphor
A figure of speech in which one thing is spoken as though it were something else.
What is repetition
Restating an idea using the SAME words
What is restatement
Expressing the same ideas using DIFFERENT words
What is parallelism
Repeating a grammatical structure in literature or speaking
What is a rhetorical question
A question asked for a effect rather than answers. Very persuasive and is almost as if you are giving a call to action
Who is Patrick Henry considered to be
The most powerful orator of the American revolution. He inspired colonist to unite to win their independence from Great Britain
While he was in the Virginia House of burgesses, what speech did he deliver that was one of his most powerful
His opposition to the stamp act which was passed by Parliament and required colonist to pay tax on every piece of print newspapers, or playing cards.
What speech did he give at the Virginia provincial convention and what was the effect
Most people argued that colonies should compromise with the British but he urged the armed resistance to England and to join war. He powerfully impacted the audience and fed the revolutionary spirit that led to the signing of the Declaration of Independence
What are the two allusions in speech in the convention by Patrick Henry and explain them
Betrayed with a kiss is when Judas betrayed Jesus in the Bible. This represents the British betraying the colonists.
Sirens transform into beast. This represents homers Odyssey when the enchantress turns to swine after singing. This shows no hope
What effect do the rhetorical questions have
They provide the ability to ponder about how they have been treated by the British and they are deceiving themselves. All of these questions are emphasizing this point and using logos
What is the Anna fora and parallelism with we have show
Shows that we have done and tried everything we can and war is the only option now
He uses repetition with we must fight because why
His repetition is emphasizing the fact that they must fight and there's no other option. It makes it clear. Emphasizes his fundamental point of the speech. This also gets the crowd worked up. They become a unified hatred toward great Britain.
What are the extended metaphors in the speech
1. Storm metaphor. Represents the upcoming eminent war.
2. Chains represents the enslavement of the colonist towards Great Britain
3. Biblical allusions
4. The Phantom of hope. Means that hope is not real and it is futile now. Hope will not get them anywhere
What is the tone of the speech
The use of we represents unity throughout the speech. They must unite to reach their goal
When he speaks of a just God what rhetorical appeal is he using
How does the tone of his voice show the development of his speech
In the beginning he starts with a calm voice and towards the end he says we must go to war and talks very loudly and strongly and confidently.
Benjamin Franklin rose from rags to riches. He made a lot of important contributions in many fields through dedication hard work and ingenuity.
What was Franklin the leader of
The colonial movement for independence. He was sent to France to aid for American revolution. Effective persuasive powers.
Franklin signed a peace treaty. And then he returned home to serve as what
Delegate in the constitutional convention in Philadelphia where he worked to ensure ratification of the Constitution.
What is Franklin best remembered as
statesman and diplomat. Only American to sign off for documents for the new nation
What does Benjamin Franklin's use of a rhetorical question show
But he wants the audience to think and contemplate his main point
What allusion is in this text
There is an allusion to the Bible in the story of the tower of Babel and he doesn't want them to be confused and have different understanding and viewpoints as did the Tower of Babel because it failed. He wants to become a united cause to prevent a weak foundation
How does Benjamin Franklin approach to a hostile audience
He targets those who don't agree with the constitution and I'm not at the work itself. He says I doubt whether any form in this convention we can obtain may be able to make a better Constitution
How does Patrick Henry have a hostile approach to it audience that disagrees with him
Forbid it Almighty God I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death
How does Ben Franklin acknowledge opposing arguments
He agrees that the constitution is not perfect
How does Patrick Henry acknowledge those who are not in agreement with him and opposing arguments
He states that many different people have many different views on patriotism and he would like to simply share his views on the matter
How does Patrick Henry have a friendly approach to a friendly audience in his speech
He uses words like Mr. President and invites the crowd to reach a goal.
What does franklins use of well administered mean
That we need to focus on making it work
How does Franklin use logos
We should sign because we need to show united front. Enemies are just waiting to watch us be destroyed and we need to prove them wrong
What is the history of Jefferson
Born into wealthy Virginia family and served in Virginia House of burgesses. Defended American rights. Became leader in the revolution to win independence. Involved in Louisiana territory from France. Author of the Declaration of Independence, which declared their independence from England
What is structure a to the Declaration of Independence
It list our responsibilities and our obvious and self evident rights as human beings
What is argument b
Listing the grievances that Great Britain King George has done to them
What is a example of an antithesis
Enemies in war, in peace friends
What is structure c
C is the declaration and address in the course of action and giving out a call to action
What does the use of we have show
We have shows all of our efforts and how they all have been failures. This appeals to logos
How did poor Richard develop
He was at first a dull and foolish astronomer. But eventually he developed into a thoughtful Pius and funny character.
What did Franklin do for Philadelphia
He helped the cities in many ways like establishing a public library and a college. And a fire department. Had street lights.
What must happen before people can depend on correct moral behavior
Recognize they have faults, be aware of the morals, and break the bad habits
Why is temperance first on his list
Because it is extended to moderate every other virtue and if you perfect it you can perfect others. Is the starting point
What is the meaning of the anecdote
Not being perfect and having faults is OK. There is difficulty in order and he comes to terms with it. You can attempt to be perfect but it takes so much work it is impossible.
What is the tone of this anecdote
Humorous, forgiving, lighthearted
What were Franklin views when he was a young man about achieving moral perfection
He was optimistic about achieving it and expected to achieve one goal at a time. "I judged it would be well not to distract my attention by attempting them all at once but to fix it on one of them at a time when I should be the master of that then to process to the other.
What are his views now
Believes that moral perfection is impossible to get in but still thinks it is worth trying. "But on the whole, the Y never arrived at the perfection I have been so ambitious of obtaining, but felt so short of it, yes I was, by the endeavor, a better and happier man that I otherwise should have been.
How can we see Franklin's character in this piece
He is a perfectionist and is very hard on himself. Very self-aware, orderly, disappointed, and maticulous
How was Franklin impacted by the age of reason
He shows discipline in the gift of reason is incorporated into his belief of morals that humans cannot achieve perfection. He is a self-made man and improved himself and grew and his actions. This is rationalism. Very different than Puritan beliefs because they believed in predestination and self-improvement. There is a lot of analyzayiln towards his actions and they are done in a very logical manner
Noun. Insatiable, greed for wealth, constantly wanting more
Not slackening or abating, incessant, never quitting
Bad beyond correction or reform
All descendants of one person
The state of being happy
To spend or use extravagantly and wastefully