APUSH Unit 2 Test Review (incomplete)

What was the impact of the Columbian exchange?
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The Columbian exchange introduced new plants, animals, diseases, and technology to Europe and the Americas. While Native Americans were able to benefit through the introduction of new technology (weapons, plow) and animals (horses) for hunting and farming, this impact was largely negative for Natives, as the diseases Europeans brought to the continent (smallpox, cholera, measles, etc.) wiped out entire populations. While Native Americans similarly brought new diseases to Europeans (syphilis, polio), the effects weren't as catastrophic. For Europeans, this impact was largely positive, as the introduction of new crops (sugarcane, potatoes, maize, tobacco, etc.) created new economic opportunities and increased the European population.
Image: What was the impact of the Columbian exchange?
Northern Colonies: rocky, thin soil made farming difficult and lead to subsistence farms; location allowed for heavy use of ports and shipbuilding; cold climate, less disease than in the warmer colonies

Southern Colonies: a favorable, agricultural climate with rich, fertile soil led to the use of cash crops that were the backbone of the economy; warm climate, more disease than in the North
Similarities: status of women, local legislatures, indentured servitude, participated in international trade

Differences: geographically, the Northern Colonies were mostly mountainous with a colder climate and a thin soil only suitable for subsistence farming; the Southern Colonies were mostly plains with a warmer climate and a rich, fertile soil suitable for cash crop farming. Economically, the Northern Colonies were focused on manufacturing and trade while the Southern Colonies were focused on agriculture.

- regional characteristics: the Northern Colonies' characteristics included common heritage, small villages, shared land, busy seaports; the Southern Colonies' characteristics included plantations, slavery, and self-sufficiency
As Virginia's economy developed, planters were running out of land and money to give indentured servants in exchange for their labor. As a result, they turned to African slave labor, which was much cheaper. Revolts by indentured servants like Bacon's Rebellion further marked the move away from indentured servitude and toward slavery.
- New England: Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire

- Middle Colonies: Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Delaware

- Southern Colonies: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia

- Chesapeake Colonies: Maryland, Virginia

- Bread Basket Colonies: the Middle Colonies, especially Pennsylvania

- Restoration Colonies: the Carolinas, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
What factors contributed to make colonial society "more equal" than European society?What were the causes and consequences of the Great Awakening?Causes: the Glorious Revolution of 1688 established the Church of England as the reigning church of the country, leading to complacency / "spiritual dryness" in how religion was practiced in both England and the American colonies Consequences: clergymen split into Old Lights vs. New Lights; religious evangelicalism; prepared the colonies for the American Revolution by showing colonists that as religious power rested in their hands, so did the power for self-governanceDescribe the colonial social structure in the 18th century. What social groups were at the high end and which groups were at the low end?Ordered from top to bottom, the social hierarchy went like this: - planters in the Southern colonies, merchants, high government officials, clergy - small farmers, skilled craft workers, shopkeepers, teachers, doctors - poor farmers, indentured servants, unskilled workers, hired farm hands - slavesHow was the relationship between the British and British colonists before the Glorious Revolution and after the Glorious Revolution?Before the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the relationship between the British and the British colonists was tense. The colonists resented strict laws passed by James II like the Navigation Acts. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the relationship between the British and the British colonists was less tense. the British were practiced salutary neglect, lessening the hold Britain had over the colonies until the French and Indian War.What was the South Atlantic System? Which crop started the movement?the South Atlantic System was trade between the Caribbean, Brazil, and Africa that used slave labor to produce sugar, tobacco, rice, and other cash crops. The crop that started this movement was sugarcane.Describe Triangular Trade. Who was involved? What was being traded? What impact did it have on different continents?Who: the Americas, Europe, and Africa What: textiles, rum, and manufactured goods were brought from Europe to Africa; enslaved Africans were brought from Africa to the Americas; cash crops like sugar, tobacco, and cotton were brought from the Americas to Europe Impact: for Europe, this led to a boosted economy (more jobs, income), the colonization of Africa, and the Industrial Revolution (due to raw materials). For Africa, this led to a decline in the population and economic fragility, opening the continent up to European colonization. For the Americas, this allowed for the development of plantations that helped increase economic growth and prosperity in the colonies.Geographically, what was the extent of French control in North America?before the French and Indian War, France controlled the following: St. Lawrence River Valley, Quebec, Great Lakes, LouisianaWhat regional dispute ultimately led to the French and Indian War?France and Britain fought over control of the Ohio River Valley territory and Canada.What was the purpose of the Albany Conference, and who called it together?The main purpose of the Albany Conference was to build a strong resistance against France in North America, discuss the plans for a war against France, and to improve relations with the Native Americans. The Albany Conference was called together by the English Board of Trade.Why did the Albany Plan of Union fail? Why is it important?The Albany Plan of Union failed because not all colonies supported the proposal, and the Crown resented the idea of colonial sovereignty that could lead to American resistance. The Albany Plan of Union is important because it is the first proposal that promoted colonial unity under a collective government.What were the general terms of the Paris Treaty of 1763?- France gave up all its territories in mainland North America - the British received Quebec and the Ohio River Valley - the port of New Orleans and the Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi were ceded to Spain - Spain ceded West and East Florida to the British - Britain restored to France several West Indian Islands and ceded Saint LuciaWhat impact did the French and Indian War have on British/American relations?Because the cost of the war caused Britain to be in a large amount of debt, Britain resorted to heavily taxing the American colonies. This, along with British policies instituted in the wake of the French and Indian War (Proclamation of 1763, end of salutary neglect) fueled American colonial resentment and worsened the relationship between Britain and the American colonies.How did the aftermath of the French and Indian War change British colonial policy in regards to land?To discourage conflict with the Native Americans, the British issued the Proclamation of 1763 in the aftermath of the war, forbidding all colonial settlement past the Appalachian Mountains.What were some of the "roots" (beginnings) of the Revolution?- The Boston Massacre (1770): British Army soldiers shot and killed 5 American colonists; propaganda - The Gaspee Incident (1772): American colonists set fire to the Gaspee, a British ship that enforced the Navigation Acts and prevented smuggling - Committees of Correspondence: a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies - Tea Act (1773): the British East India Co. had a monopoly on British tea imports - Boston Tea Party (1773): sixteen colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians board three British tea ships in Boston Harbor and dump the contents - Intolerable Acts (1774): closed the Boston Harbor until debt could be repaid, dissolved all town meetings in MA, appointed all British as government officials - Quebec Act (1774): aided out the way in which the Providence of Quebec was to be governed - 1st Continental Congress (1774): delegates from 12 out of 13 colonies gathered to discuss how to respond to Intolerable Acts - Battle of Lexington & Concord (1775) / "The shot heard 'round the world" - 2nd Continental Congress (1775): issued Deceleration of Independence, Olive Branch PetitionWhat were the colonial criticisms of British Mercantilism?What was the major legal argument the colonies gave for opposing British taxes?The colonists argued using the slogan "no taxation without representation"; essentially, Parliament did not have the right to tax American colonies because the colonists could not/did not represent themselves in Parliament.Describe the tactics used by colonials to oppose taxation. Which were most effective? Why?Was the American Revolution more economic or political in nature? Defend your opinion.Were the colonials justified in rebelling against Britain? Explain.Evaluate American preparedness for war. What were their greatest strengths? What were their greatest weaknesses?Strengths: competent military leaders, fought a defensive war, familiarity with the land Weaknesses: inexperienced soldiers, small population, little wealth, weak centralized governmentDescribe the purpose of the 1st Continental Congress and the 2nd Continental Congress.1st Continental Congress: met to discuss how the colonies would respond to the Intolerable Acts; adopted a Declaration of American Rights, urged MA to arm for defense, and adopted the Continental Association to boycott British goods. 2nd Continental Congress: met to begin regulating the war effort and to adopt the Declaration of Independence to be sent to George III.