AP Psych Unit 2 (FRQs)
Research Methods: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
Terms in this set (10)
Name the three components of the scientific attitude. Provide an example to show how each component contributes to the investigation of competing ideas in psychology.
1.) Curiosity, leads us to questions we want to investigate. For example, is schizophrenia inherited?
2.) Skepticism keeps us from accepting ideas without sound support. For example, the work of The Amazing Randi.
3.) Humility keeps us open to the possibility of changing our ideas when they are not supported by the data. For example, "the rat is always right."
Aziz has read that handwriting reveals important details about personality. Explain how each component of the scientific attitude can help Aziz investigate the accuracy of the information he has read about handwriting analysis.
Curiosity will make Aziz ask questions and seek answers about handwriting analysis.
Skepticism will help Aziz to evaluate the results of his investigation for any flaws.
Humility will help Aziz be aware of any potential biases that could cloud his interpretation of the data. Aziz can then rely on the evidence gathered during his research rather than preexisting notions about what should happen.
A teacher wants to know if nightmares are more common than dreams. He asks volunteers from his second period class to report how many dreams they had last week. He asks volunteers from his third period class to report the number of nightmares they had last week. Describe two things wrong with the design of this study.
1.) There is not hypothesis stated
2.) The teacher is not blind. The teacher could influence the results by the way he asked questions.
Naturalistic observation is a research method used by psychologists to investigate human and animal behavior. Identify three weaknesses of naturalistic observation.
1.) Without various groups, it is hard to determine cause and effect
2.) It is hard to make sure the researcher does not accidentally influence the results since it is hard for people not to notice when being observed
3.) Different researchers can get different results because of naturalistic observation lacking clear-cut lines
Students with higher scores on anxiety scaled were found to have lower scores on standardized tests. What research method would show this relationship? Why can no cause-effect conclusion be drawn from the results?
This research method is a correlation study
There are three possibilities for causation: anxiety could cause low test scores, low test scores could cause anxiety, or a third factor could cause both anxiety and low test scores. No conclusion can be drawn about causation because this is not an experiment.
Ms. Ledbetter wants to determine if the new review activity she developed will improve student performance on unit exams. She randomly separates 160 students into two groups. Group A reviews for the unit exam in the traditional manner they have always used. Group B participates in the new review activity. After reviewing both groups are given the same unit exam and their scores are compared. Identify the independent and dependent variables for this experiment.
The independent variable is the form of review and dependent variable is the scores.
Explain the difference between descriptive and interferential statistics in research
Descriptive statistics organize and summarize the data collected during research.
Inferential statistics are used to determine whether results can be generalized to a larger population through the calculation of statistical significance.
Student 1: 2 hours studying
Student 2: 3 hours studying
Student 3: 6 hours studying
Student 4: 8 hours studying
Student 5: 9 hours studying
Student 6: 9 hours studying
Student 7: 21 hours studying
Examine the data and respond to the following:
• What is the middle score in this distribution? What term is used to describe the middle score?
• What would be the most useful statistic for measuring the variation of hours spent studying? Why is this statistic a better measure of variation than range?
The middle score would be 8. The middle score is called the median.
The most useful statistic for measuring the number of hours would be mean. It is a better measure because it gives the average hours spent and not the difference between the maximum and minimum.
Provide three reasons why nonhuman animals are sometimes used in psychological research.
1.) Researchers are interested in understanding animals including their thinking and behaviors
2.) Others use animals to reduce the complexity that is part of the human research. They hope to understand principles that can be similar to those that govern human psychological phenomena.
3.) Researchers also study nonhuman animals to apply findings in ways that will help both humans and other animals themselves
Researchers interested in studying stress gave 250 high school seniors a very difficult math exam. After the test, the researchers measured stress by examining physiological changes with extensive medical testing that included drawing blood samples.
• What ethical principle governs what students must be told before the research takes place? What should the potentials participants be told?
• What ethical principle govern the appropriate use of the results of the medical testing? What would that principle say about the use of these results?
Debriefing, The students must have a basic understanding of what is happening, enough for them to give informed consent.
The results must only be allowed to be used after students are debriefed. The students should be told the day of and should be allowed to drop out..