Get ahead with a $300 test prep scholarship
| Enter to win by Tuesday 9/24
Biology 1 lecture exam
study guide for Boi2113 Anatomy and Physiology I
Terms in this set (118)
The study of the structure of individual cells.
The study of the general and superficial markings of an organism.
The study of all the superficial and internal features in a specific area of the body
An eye, ear, nose, and throat specialist is concerns with ______.
The study of early developmental processes.
The study of the structure of tissues
peritoneum separates____ from _____.
the abdominal cavity;pelvic cavity
Human growth includes ___, the specialization of the cells to perform particular functions.
the branch of biological science that deals with the external and internal structure of body parts and their physical relationships is ____.
The study of specific organ systems .
The branch of physiology that deals with changes in function resulting from disease.
supports and protects soft tissue, mineral storage, and blood formation.
The term for techniques that involve radioisotopes or sources of radiation outside of the body is___.
The resistance to X-ray penetration is called____.
A(n) ___ is produced when X-ray images are made of blood vessels that contain a radiodense dye.
dorsal body cavity and coelom
The two body cavities that form during embryonic development are:
which sectional plane could divide the body so that the face remains intact?
The tendency for physiological systems to stabilize internal conditions is called______.
_____ occurs when the activities of cells, tissues, organs, or systems change intrinsically.
_____ results from the activities of the activities of the nervous or endocrine systems.
In ____ feedback, the initial stimulus produces a responses that escalates the stimulus.
When homeostatic mechanisms fail, an individual will experience the symptoms of____.
A person lying face down in the anatomical position is said to be in the _____ position.
A person lying face up in the anatomical position is said to be in the _____ position.
A cut parallel to the midsagittal plane would produce a _____ section.
The technique of making a series of sections at small intervals is called______.
the simplest chemical units of matter
The atomic number represents the number of____.
protons in an atom
All atoms with the same atomic number are grouped into___.
The mass number of an atom indicates the number of_____.
protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Radioisotopes have unstable______.
The chemical behavior of an atom is determined by_______.
the number and arrangement of electrons
A substance containing atoms of different elements that are bond together is called a(n)_____.
Ions with a positive charge are called______.
In living cells, the weakest bond between two or more atoms is the ________ bond.
Ionic bonds are formed when_____.
electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
Ina a molecule of nitrogen, three pairs of electrons are shared by two nitrogen atoms. The type of bond that is formed would be an example of a(n)_______.
triple covalent bond
If a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms, a(n)___________ occurs.
polar covalent bond
Elements that have full outer shells of electrons_____.
Chemical reaction that occur in the human body are controlled by special catalytic molecules called_____.
Substrate molecules bind to enzymes at the _____.
All of the compounds that can be synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside the body are called_____.
If a substance has a pH that is greater than 7, it is ______.
An important buffer in body fluids is____.
In the body, inorganic compounds _____.
can make up buffers
The most important high energy compound in cells is _____.
An______ is a substance that consists entirely of atoms with the same atomic number.
The center of an atom is called the________.
Electrons in an atom occupy an orderly series of electron shells or___________.
Electrons whirl around the center of the atom at high speed forming a(n)________.
A combination of two or more atoms that has physical and chemical properties that differ from the atoms that compose it is called a(n)____________.
Ions with a positive charge are called_______.
In a _______ chemical bonds between atoms are broken as atoms are rearranged in new combination to form different chemical substances.
Chemical reactions that release energy are said to be_____.
Chemical reactions that require energy are said to be __________.
_________ control the role of chemical reactions that occur in the human body.
In living cells, complex reactions proceed in a series of interlocking flaps called a _________.
______ molecules are compounds that contain carbon as the primary structural atom.
________ compounds are compounds that do not contain carbon as the primary structural atom.
A(n)________ is a homogeneous mixture containing a solvent and a solute.
Molecules that readily dissolve in water are called________.
Molecules that do not dissolve in water are called_____.
The _______ of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration expressed in moles per liter in the solution.
________ are compound that in solution maintain pH within given limits.
All fatty acids contain an arrangement of atoms called the _______ at one end of the chain.
carboxylic acid group
In water, large numbers of fatty acids tend to form droplets called ______.
_______ are lipid molecules that form cellular membranes.
structural lipids (or phospholipids)
The molecule DNA contains the five carbon sugar_____.
The molecule RNA contains the five carbon sugar_____.
The purines found in DNA are _________and_______.
When a nitrogen base is added to a pentose sugar, a ______ is formed.
A(n)________ is a covalent bond that stores an unusually large amount of energy.
high energy bond
In the process of _____ a phosphate group is attached to a molecule.
The basic structural and functional unit of the human body is __________.
The watery medium that surrounds a cell is known as ____.
The plasma membrane is composed of _____.
a bilayer of lipids
Cell membranes are said to be _____.
The movement of oxygen from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example of______.
The movement of water across a membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration is known as_____.
Water molecules and small ions enter a cell through _____.
channels in some integral proteins
The phenomenon of bulk flow refers to _____.
the movement of groups of water molecules through a membrane at one time
a solution taht contains a lower solute concentration than the cytoplasm of a cell is called_______.
Crenation occurs when a blood cell is placed in a(n)________ solution.
The ______ of a membrane is the property that determines its affectiveness as a barrier.
Cell membranes are said to be ___________ because they allow some substances to pass but not others.
Membrane-bound carrier mechanisms that actively move one ions across the cell membrane in one direction are called_____.
A(n) _____ is a carrier system that moves one ion in one direction and another in the opposite direction.
Receptor molecules on the surface of cells bind specific molecules called______.
Whenever positive and negative ions are kept apart, a _______ exists.
The transmembrane potential in an undisturbed cell is called its ___________.
resting membrane potential
The endoplasmic reticulum is an example a(n) ______ organelle.
The __________ is the cytoplasm that surrounds the pair of centioles found in animal cells.
The potential difference across the cell membrane is known as the ___________.
During the process of mitosis, chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes during _____.
During this phase of cell division, the chromosomes uncoil, the nuclear membrane forms, and cytokinesis may occur.
when genes are functionally eliminated, the cell loses its ability to create particular proteins. This term specialization process is termed_____.
The main divisions of the cytoplasm are________and_______.
Masses of insoluble material that are sometimes found in cytosol are known as_______.
_______ cells are all of the cells of the body except the reproductive cells(sperm and ova)
_____proteins can open or close to regulate the passage of materials through the cell membrane.
Cilia and flagella are anchored to the cell by the_____.
Ribosomes are composed of protein and _____.
The nucleus is surrounded by the _______.
Communication between the nucleus and cytosol occurs through______.
A molecule of ________ consists of all the codons needed to produce a specific polypeptide chain.
The enzyme _______ is required for the synthesis of mRNA.
Amino acids are carried to the ribosomes to be incorporated into polypeptide chains by______.
A sequence of three bases that indicates the end of a polypeptide chain is known as a(n)______.
A______ is a series of ribosomes attached to the same mRNA.
_______ are permanent alterations in a cell's DNA.
A point mutation involves a change in _____.
a single nucleotide
In cells that are not dividing, chromosomes form a loose network of fibers known as_________.
Cellular reproduction of somatic cells is known as________.
___ is the process of duplicating DNA prior to cell division.
Special cells called________ maintain cell populations through repeated cycles of cell division.
The proper distribution of a cell's genetic material to two daughter cells is accomplished by the process of________.
The physical process by which a single animal cell separates into two cells is called________.
The process by which cells become specialized is called____.