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SUPA Forensics - Chapter 1 Test
Terms in this set (25)
Classification of fingerprints
Determination of blood groups
First system of personal identification - human measurements
Presented the first toxicology test to a jury trial
Exchange principal - exchange of materials when two objects come in contact
published the first manual on criminal investigation
father of toxicology
First text detailing application of science to criminal investigation
Father of ballistics, the use of a comparison microscope
Used fingerprints to identify people (in the Indian Civil Service)
Developed the first DNA lab technique to show individuality
Frye vs. Daubert
- Attempted Robbery; Frye charged with 2nd degree murder of Dr. Robert Brown
- When/Where: D.C. 1923
- Frye sued U.S. District Supreme Court arguing that polygraph evidence would have proven his innocence, but the judge deemed it an non-admissible
- Polygraph, if admitted, would have showed that Frye was not guilty
- Case set a precedent that the judge can determine what's admissible evidence and that the polygraph is not admissible.
Daubert vs. Merrill Dow
- Boy was born with physical deformities
- Mother claims the deformities were due to the drug (for morning sickness) that she was taking during pregnancy
- The judge ruled that there wasn't evidence to prove a clear link between the drug and the deformities
- Set a precedent that the judge can act as a gatekeeper to admit evidence
A legal principle or rule that comes from a court decision that can be used as a point of reference for deciding other cases
Kumho Tire vs. Carmichael
Daubert factors were extended to non-scientist expert witnesses, proving that the trial judge has enormous flexibility
General Electric vs. Joiner
Requires that experts limit their opinions to straightforward extensions of the data and have limits on what they can say. In other words, experts cannot exert their own opinions into their testimony just because they are considered experts.
Melendez vs. Dias
U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the experts in the lab who test the admissibility of forensic evidence may be required to testify in court.
The theory that TV shows based on crime solving and forensic science effect jurors in real-life cases because jurors are likely to vote to convict a certain way due to what they've seen on TV rather than how the law should actually be applied.
First U.S. Crime Laboratory was established... When? Where?
LAPD in 1924
First global crime lab establish in...
Locard's exchange principle
When someone comes in contact with someone else, there is a cross-transfer of physical evidence
Principle of Individuality
Although two object/people may be indistinguishable, that does not mean they are exactly identical (e.g.
Dr. Jascalevich Trial & why was he convicted 10 years later from first trial?
Dr. Jasclevich was tried for murder and 10 years after his first trial, he was tried again because new technology was developed. This new technology enabled examiners to detect a byproduct of curare in the human body
The application of scientific methods and principles to the investigation of crimes and criminals
The science and profession of dealing with physical evidence. Also the application of the natural sciences to law-science matters.