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Management Exam 1
Terms in this set (98)
A field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations
Organization (the 'O' in 'OB')
A group of persons organized for some common purpose or work (coworkers, supervisors, subordinates) in which they interact with other stakeholders - interdependently
Behavior (the 'B' in 'OB')
These are displayed by employees in their workplaces or related to their work (thinking, feeling, action)
Resource Based View (RBV) of the Organization
Resources will be "valuable" and help achieve sustained competitive advantage if these resources are 1) useful/beneficial, 2) rare, AND 3) inimitable by competitors
What are the 4 methods of science?
Theory, hypotheses, data, and verification
Collection of assertions that specify how and why variables are related, and the conditions where they should and should not be related
Predictions that specify relationships
Collected via observations
Trends in the data are analyzed and validated using statistical methods such as correlation, regression, etc
Describes the statistical relationship between 2 variables
The value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute either positively or negatively to organizational goal accomplishment
Why focus on job performance?
As a manager, it is critical to understand your own preference and the performance of others
Employee behaviors directly involved in transformation of organizational resources into goods and services that the org produces & tasks, duties, and responsibilities that are a core and necessary part of the job
Step 1 in Job Analysis
Generates list of ALL activities involved in a job (done using observation, surveys and interviews with employees)
Step 2 in Job Analysis
Each activity is then rated by 'subject-matter experts' on criteria such as importance and frequency
Step 3 in Job Analysis
Activities that have high rating in importance and frequency are retained. These are used to describe a job in the form of a job description.
Voluntary employee actives, that may or may not be rewarded but that contribute to the org by improving overall quality of the setting in which the work occurs
Organizational Citizenship Behavior
These behaviors benefit org by supporting and defending the company, working to improve its operations and being especially loyal to it (ex: voice, civic virtue, boosterism)
Interpersonal Citizenship Behavior
These behaviors benefit colleagues and co-workers and involves assisting, supporting and developing other org members in a way that goes beyond the normal job expectation (ex: helping, courtesy, sportsmanship)
Involves speaking up and offering constructive suggestions for change
Refers to participating in company's operations at a deeper than normal level by attending voluntary meetings/functions, keeping abreast of org announcements and important events that might impact the org
Representing the org in a positive way when out in public, away from work and the office
Involves assisting employees with heavy workload, helping in personal matters, guiding new employees to help them adjust and so on...
Keeping co-workers informed about important work related information, showing mutual respect & _____ in interpersonal behaviors
Maintaining a positive outlook when the going is tough or when others are whining and complaining
Behaviors that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment
Behaviors aimed at reducing efficiency of work output including resource wastage, substance abuse, etc.
Behaviors meant to intentionally disadvantage other persons rather than the org such as gossiping, being rude, impolite, discourteous
Behaviors that harm org's assets and possessions including sabotage, theft
Hostile verbal and physical actions directed at other employees such as aggression, harassment, abuse, and bullying
Organizations spend massive amount of resources in gathering information about employee performance, in order to manage and improve it
Management By Objectives
Employees allowed to contribute to their own goals via discussions with their managers, supposed to generate commitment towards objectives, they need to be specific and measurable
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales
Assesses the job performance behaviors (more info in chapter 2)
360 Degree Feedback
Helps gather employee performance related information not just from supervisors but from anyone who might have first hand information about employee performance
Aim is to make clear distinctions among the employees in terms of performance
The desire on the part of an employee to remain a part of the organization
Why is Organizational Commitment Important?
1. Employees with low commitment are likely to display withdrawal behaviors which may be harmful to org
2. It's not enough to have talented employees; you must be able to retain them as well
3. if a low commitment employee leaves org, the administrative cost of separation and also cost of searching is substantial
Desire to remain with an org due to an emotional attachment to & involvement with that org
Desire to remain with an org due to awareness of the cost of leaving it
Desire to remain with an org due to a feeling of obligation
Erosion Model (Affective Commitment)
Employees with fewer bonds are more likely to quit the org
Social Influence Model (Affective Commitment)
Employees with direct bonds with "leavers" will themselves become more likely to leave
Embeddedness (Continuance Commitment)
Summarizes the links of a person with the org and the community, the fit of the person with the org and the community and the sacrifices that the person will have to make if he/she decides to leave the job
How can organizations foster commitment?
They can be supportive by providing adequate rewards, protecting job security, improving work conditions and minimizing the impact of politics; they can also focus their support efforts on specific types of commitment
Behaviors that are meant to avoid work
Actions that provide a mental escape from the work environment
Actions that provide a physical escape, whether short-term or long-term from the work environment
Structures and propensities inside people that explain their characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior
Most important of the big 5 traits; people are dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking and persevering; prioritize "accomplishment striving" meaning they have a strong desire to accomplish task related goals
People are warm, kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful & courteous; they prioritize "communion striving" meaning strong desire to achieve acceptance in interpersonal relationships
People are talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold and dominant; prioritize "status striving" meaning strong desire to obtain power and influence within a social structure
People are moody and emotional; have external locus of control meaning they feel they have very little control over most things in life
People are curious, imaginative, creative, and complex; flexible and more amenable to new information or situations
Shared values, beliefs, motives, identities and interpretations that result from common experience of members of society and are transmitted across generations
Individualistic (Hofstede's Dimension of Cultural Values)
The culture is a loosely knit social framework in which people take care of themselves and their immediate family
Collectivistic (Hofstede's Dimension of Cultural Values)
The culture is a tight social framework in which people take care of the members of a broader in-group and act loyal to it
Power Distance (Hofstede's Dimension of Cultural Values)
Low: Culture prefers that power is distributed uniformly where possible in a more egalitarian fashion
High: Culture accepts that power is usually distributed unequally within orgs
Uncertainty Avoidance (Hofstede's Dimension of Cultural Values)
Low: Culture tolerates uncertain and ambiguous situations and values unusual ideas/behaviors
High: Culture feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and relies on formal rules to create stability
Masculinity (Hofstede's Dimension of Cultural Values)
Culture values stereotypically male traits such as assertiveness and the acquisition of money and things
Feminine (Hofstede's Dimension of Cultural Values)
Culture values stereotypically female traits such as caring for others and caring about quality of life
A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job (experiences); represents how you feel & what you think about your job
What are the different facets of job satisfaction?
Satisfaction with work itself
Which satisfaction has the highest correlation with overall job satisfaction?
Satisfaction with work itself
What are the 5 parts of the job characteristic model?
Degree to which the job needs different activities requiring different skills & talents
Degree to which the job requires completion of a whole, identifiable piece of work, from start to end
Degree to which the job has a substantial impact on lives of others, especially people in the world at large
Degree to which the job provides freedom, independence and discretion to the job performer
Degree to which the job activities provide clear information about how the employee is performing
States of feeling that are often mild to intensity; last for extended period of time; not explicitly directed at a target nor are they caused by anything specific
States of feelings that are high to intensity; last for very short period of time; clearly directed at or caused by someone
Need to manage emotions to complete job duties successfully
The tendency of one person to "catch" or "be infected by" the emotion of another person
Set of energetic forces that originate both within and outside an employee, initiate work-related effort, and determine its direction, intensity and persistence (desire to do something)
Motivation that is not dependent on the task itself but is dependent on the contingencies associated with the performance of a task
Motivation that is derived from the performance of the task itself. It's fostered when the task serves as its own reward.
Belief that exerting high level of effort will result in successful performance of some task
How to boost expectancy?
By boosting employee self-efficacy about the task (provide resources, support, and feedback to employees and make sure you set realistic and achievable goals)
Belief that the successful performance of a task will result in some outcomes
How to boost instrumentality?
By ensuring employees have high level of trust in you and the organization (be fair and unbiased as a manager and make sure you give what you promise to the employees)
Anticipated value of the outcomes associated with the task performance
Goal Setting Theory
Specific & difficult goals will lead to higher levels of performance as compared to no goals, easy goals or "do your best" goals
What does SMART goals stand for?
How to boost goal commitment?
Managers and employees participate jointly in the goal setting process
An employee will compare his/her output-to-input ration with the output-to-input ratio of a "comparison other"
Internal tension that can only be alleviated by restoring balance to the ratios
How do employees try to restore equity distress?
1. Changing their input or output, or both
2. Via cognitive distorting of the comparison ratios
3. Changing the "comparison other"
- Easily transferred through written or verbal communication
- Readily available to most
- Can be learned through books
- Always conscious and accessible info
- General information
- Very difficult to articulate to others
- Highly personal in nature
- Based on experience
- Sometimes holders don't even recognize that they possess it
- Typically job- or situation specific
Intuition Based Decision Making
Programmed decisions occur in areas that are repetitive, familiar, and have been experienced before; often occurs as "intuition" or "gut feeling"; most effective when DN is an expert
People cannot take in all the info available for DM, so their decisions are based on the info they perceive in the environment
Tendency to see the environment only as it affects you and as it is consistent with your expectation
When we believe that others think, feel and act the same way we do
Assumption that all members of a given social group are similar
When people witness a behavior or outcome they make judgements
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to judge others' behaviors as caused due to internal factors
Tendency to attribute our own failures to external factors and our own successes to internal factors
Escalation of Commitment
Refers to the decision to continue to follow a failing course of action
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