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AP Psychology Chapter 14

The penultimate test!
STUDY
PLAY
The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social-cognitive perspective is to
Bandura
individualism is most likely to be emphasized in
north america
Regarding the self-serving bias, humanistic psychologists have emphasized that self affirming thinking
is generally adaptive to the individual because it maintains selfconfidence and minimizes depression
Karen horney, a prominent neofreudian disputed freuds assumption that women
have weak superegos
which of the following is the correct order of psychosexual stages proposed by freud?
oral; anal; phallic; latency; genital
melissa is unconsciously fearful that her husband is a better cook than she. recently, she refused his offer to prepare dinner because she said, "you could better spend the time playing with our kids." melissa's comment best illustrates
rationalization
people who are challenged by severe physical disabilities are likely to maintain normal levels of self-esteem by
comparing themselves with others who are similarly disabled
carl rogers suggested that the _____ is a central feature of personality
inferiority complex
professor shankar believes that her students most important personal characteristics are those that distinguishe them as uniquely different from most other people. her attitude best illustrates one of the consequences of
individualism
dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shockes developed
learned helplessness
carol was informed by a professional palm reader: "you generally communicated openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess." the fact that carol was impressed by the palm readers insight into her personality best illustrates
the barnum effect
the big five personality factors are
emotional stability, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness
a psychologist at the campus mental health center administered an empirically derived personality test to diagnose an emotionally troubled student. which test did the psychologiest most likely administer?
the MMPI
two-year-old donald frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence. freud would have suggested tht donald is going through the ____ stage of development
anal
one night after he heard his parents arguin, 4 yr old Wei had a vivid dream in which he saved his mother from being bitten by a large snake. a psychoanalyst would most likely suspect that Wei's dream reflects a(n)
Oedipus complex
freud observed that certain symptoms of illness were relieved when patients talked freely about their past. this lead freud to suspect that these symptoms resulted from
psychologilcal processes
abraham maslow studied the lives of abraham lincoln, thomas jefferson, and eleanor roosevelt in order to understand the nature of
self actualization
an example of the self serving bias described in the text is the tendency of people to
do both a and b
(see themselves as better than average on nearly any desirable dimention)
(accept more responsibility for successes than failures)
andrew's grandfather, who has lived a rich and productive life, is a spontaneous, loving, and self accepting person. maslow might say that he
is a self actualizeing person
coretta is quiet, pessimistic, and moody. in terms of eysencks' basic personality dimensions she would be classified as
unstable-introverted
mr. hendriks, a high school teacher, washes the chalkboard and realigns student desks in precise rows before every class. according to the psychoanalytic perspective, mr hendriks is most likely fixated at the ______ stage.
anal
individuals with high self esteem are more likely than those with low self esteem to
have a strong ego
when professor thompson lived overseas for a year, he was very surprised at how much respect he recieved from people simply because he was a retired college professor. his sense of surprise suggests that he had not previously lived in a culture that valued
reciprocal determinism
because mr. maloney trusts his employees, he treats them very kindly. his kindness leads themm to work diligently on his behalf, which in turn increases his trust in them. this pattern of trust, kindness, diligence, and increasing trust illustrates what is meant by
reciprocal determinism
a willingness to switch jobs and move from one part of the country to another best illustrates one of the consequences of
individualism
henry murray found that children's perceptions of photographs were biased by their previous participation in a frightening game. their perceptual reactions most clearly highlighted the potential value of
projective tests
when 16 yr old Hafez received a large inheritence from his grandfather, he was tempted to purchase and exxpensive new car. he decided instead to deposit all the money ina savings account for his college education. hafez shows signs of a
strong ego
bill is muscular and physically strong. sheldon would classify him as
a mesomorphic type
in one survey, americans were more optimistic that they themselves would go to heaven than would michael jordan or bill clinton. this best illustrates
self serving bias
a person whose self esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to
criticize the shortcomings of others
according to the psychoanalytic perspective, a child who frequently "slips" and calls her teacher "mom" probably
has some unresolved conflicts concerning her mother
ffreud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of
the superego
research on self perception indicates that most people
view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others
according to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the
ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized
a psychoanalyst would characterize a person who is impulsive and self indulgent as prossessing a strong ____ and a weak ______
id; superego
jill has a biting, sarcastic manner. according to freud she is
fixated in the oral stage in development
the defense mechanism by which people rechannel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities is
sublimination
compared to those in collectivist cultures, people in individualist cultures
have all of the above characteristics
for his class presentation, bruse plans to discuss the big five personality factors used by people throughout the world to describe others or themselves. which of the following is not a factor that bruce will discuss?
independence
humanistic theorists have been criticized for
underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors
maslow most clearly interjected his own personal values itno his study of self actualized individuals by
selectively studying people with qualities he admired
which of the following statements about self esteem is not correct
people with low self esteem tent to be nonconformists
japanest students are more likely than american students to describe themselves in terms of their
social identites
which neoFreudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development
Jung
after experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a nazi concentration camp, mr sternberg became apathetic, stoppped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. mr sternbergs reaction most clearly illustrates
learned helplessness
research onthe locus of control indicates that internals are _________ than externals
better able to come with stress
which of the following tests was empirically derived
MMPI-2
projective tests are most closely associated with the _____ perspective
psychoanalytic
four year old timmy has not wet his bed for over a year. however, he starts bed wetting again soon after his sister is born. timmys behavior best illustrates
regression
mrs smith, who is white and unconsciously in favor of racial segregation, teller her friends that most blacker prefer to live in residential neighborhoods inhabited predominantly by blacks. according to psychoanalytic theory, mrs smith best illustrates
projection
athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. this best illustrates
self serving bias
dr gonzales believes that most students can be classified as a Type A or Type B according to the intensities of their personalities and competitiveness. evidently, dr gonzales is working within the ______ perspective
trait
freud emphasized that emotional healing is associated with the
recovery of repressed memories
because you have a relatively low level of brain arousal, a trait theorist would suggest that you are a(n) _____ who would naturally seek _____.
extravert; stimulation
according to psychoanalytic theory, boys fear of castration is most closely associated with
the Oedipus complex
the tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as
the barnum effect
freud suggested that Leonardo da Vinci's paintings of Madonnas could be traced back to his desire for intimacty with his own mother. According to Freud, da Vincis artistry provides an example of
sublimation
freud suggested that slips of the tongue illustrate an imcomplete
repression
for humanistic psychologists, many of our attitudes and behaviors are ultimately shaped wy whether out ______is ___ or _____.
self concept; positive; negative
in studying personality, a trait theorist would most likely:
use a personality inventory
a psychotherapist instructs david to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. the therapist is using a technique known as
free association
which of the following is mostl likely to contribute to raising ones self esteem?
self serving bias
recent research on the big five personality factors provides evidence that
some tendencies decrease during adulthood, whild others incerase
researchers found that new life insurance representatives were less likely to quit during their first year on the job if the demonstrated the trait of
optimist
the text defines personality as
an individuals vharacteristic pattern of thnking, feeling, and acting
randys substandard academic performance is both a result and a cause of his feelings of academic inferiority. this best illustrates the importance of
reciprocal determinism
when she was eight years old, inge was sexually abused by her uncle. at 14, inge feld uncomfortable whenever she was his uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. a psychoanalyst would most likely suggest that inge is using hte defense mechanism of
repression
freuds theory of personality has been criticized because it
offers few testable predictions that allow one to determine its validity
during the early psychosexual stages, the id derives pleasure from distinct
erogenous zones
sexually active undergraduate women perceive themselves as much less likely to experience an unwanted pregnancy than other women at their university. this best illlustrates
unrealistic optimism
if we are nervous about our personal appearance after adopting a new hairstyle, we are likely to ______ the extent to which others notice our nervousness and we are likely to ______ the extent to which they notice our new hairstyle
overestimate.\ overestimate
the myers-briggs type indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by
carl jung
humanistic psychologists would most likely be critized for underestimating the value of
social influence
santa claus is to superman as _____ is to ______
endomorph ; mesomorph
recent research has provided more supprt for defense mechanisms such as ______ than for defense mechanisms such as _______
reaction formation; sublimation
Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of:
A. displacement.
B. repression.
C. the Oedipus complex.
D. reaction formation.
B repression
Freud's analogy about the conscious and unconscious mind
iceburg
The use of free association is central to the process of
psychoanalysis
According to Freud the unconscious is
the thoughts wishes feelings and memories of which we are largely unaware
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
ID
According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the _______ stage.
phallic
Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stave as:
fixation
what is a thematic apperception test (TAT)
a projective test, whereby individuals are presented with ambiguous pictures and asked to generate a story from them, thereby reveal personality characteristics, motivation for power, achievement and affiliation, and in a clinical setting, any underlying emotional problems.
The Big Five personality factors are:
neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness
The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to be almost anyone is known as
the Barnum Effect
Compared to those with an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are more likely to:
cope effectively with stress
The perception that one's fate is determined by luck reflects:
an external locus of control
Learned helplessness is most likely to contribute to:
an external locus of control
Neo-Freudian personality theorists were most likely to disagree with Freud about the importance of:
childhood sexual instincts
Projective tests are most closely associated with the _____ perspective.
psychoanalytic
Anal Stage (summary)
Major focus of sexual interest is anus; control of body functions is major feature.
Anal retentive
used conversationally to describe a person who pays such attention to detail that the obsession becomes an annoyance to others
How does Martin Seligman's positive psychology differs from the humanistic perspective?
its focuses on the individual and community to thrive unlike humanistic that focuses on the self and the bad qualities of themselves and the methodology is scientific
Alfred Adler
Believed in the inferiority complex. Didn't believe that childhood sexual tensions were crucial for personality formation. Believed that much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer feelings of inferiority.