165 terms

Management Final Exam Chapters 11-16

E. Personality
The stable psychological traits and behavioral attributes that give a person her identity are known as her...
A. Character
B. Values
C. Attitudes
D. Attributions
E. Personality
C. Openness to experience
________ is the personality dimension that describes how intellectual, imaginative, curios, and broad-minded a person is.
A. Inquisitiveness
B. Emotional stability
C. Openness to experience
D. Extroversion
E. Inventiveness
A. Emotional stability
Michael is frequently nervous, tense, and worried, both at work and at home. He likely scores low on which of the Big Five personality dimensions?
A. Emotional stability
B. Conscientiousness
C. Extroversion
D. Openness to experience
E. Self-monitoring
A. Extroversion
______ has been associated with success for managers and salespeople.
A. Extroversion
B. Agreeableness
C. Openness to experience
D. Emotional stability
E. Conscientiousness
B. Proactive
A person who is apt to take initiative and persevere to influence the environment is said to have a(n) ______ personality.
A. emotionally stable
B. proactive
C. extroverted
D. emotionally intelligent
E. self-efficacious
C. internal locus of control
People with ______ exhibit less anxiety, greater motivation, and stronger expectations that effort leads to performance.

A. high self-efficacy
B. high self-monitoring
C. internal locus of control
D. high tolerance for ambiguity
E. high self-esteem
E. provide an incentive structure to pay Cara
Cara's manager notices that she exhibits an internal locus of control when she speaks about her work. Her manager should
A. give Cara a lot of positive feedback.
B. ensure that Cara has a highly structured job.
C. give Cara a job with much social contact with coworkers and customers.
D. closely supervise Cara's work.
E. provide an incentive structure to pay Cara.
A. Self-efficancy
Complex, challenging, and autonomous jobs tend to enhance people's perceptions of their
A. self-efficacy.
B. increased anxiety.
C. tolerance for pain.
D. learned helplessness.
E. self-esteem.
B. self-esteem
The extent to which people like or dislike themselves is called their
A. emotional stability.
B. self-esteem.
C. locus of control.
D. self-efficacy.
E. self-monitoring.
E. express confidence in the employee's abilities to complete given tasks
If a manager knows one of her subordinates has low self-esteem and wishes to enhance it, she should
A. provide frequent reminders about improving weaknesses.
B. avoid delegating work to this subordinate.
C. redesign the work so that it is routine and structured.
D. avoid giving feedback.
E. express confidence in the employee's abilities to complete given tasks.
E. insensitive
Low self-monitors are often criticized for being ______ to others.
A. insincere
B. boastful
C. aggressive
D. unfair
E. insensitive
D. Social awareness
Which of the following is a trait of emotional intelligence?
A. situational awareness
B. self-sufficiency
C. self-monitoring
D. social awareness
E. self-efficacy
A. behavior
Organizational ______ tries to explain and predict workplace behavior to help managers better lead and motivate others.
A. behavior
B. development
C. culture
D. strategy
E. science
D. work-life balance
Surveys show that employees are more interested in ______ rather than just earning a paycheck.
A. advancement opportunity
B. recognition
C. benefits
D. work-life balance
E. status
C. cognitive
The ______ component of an attitude consists of the beliefs and knowledge one has about a situation.
A. behavioral
B. decisional
C. cognitive
D. affective
E. factual
A. behavioral
The statement, "I won't give Kim such a tight deadline again," reflects the ______ component of an attitude.
A. behavioral
B. decisional
C. cognitive
D. affective
E. value
E. cognitive dissonance
Because people are uncomfortable with inconsistency between their attitudes and behaviors, they will seek to reduce
A. a self-fulfilling prophecy.
B. fundamental attribution.
C. a self-serving bias.
D. causal attribution.
E. cognitive dissonance.
C. eliminate the self-serving bias
Which of the following is not one of the main ways to reduce cognitive dissonance?
A. Change your attitude.
B. Change your behavior.
C. Eliminate the self-serving bias.
D. Find consonant elements that outweigh the dissonant ones.
E. Belittle the importance of the inconsistent behavior.
B. perception
The process of interpreting and understanding one's environment is called
A. self-awareness.
B. perception.
C. cognition.
D. self-monitoring.
E. openness to experience.
A. cognitive dissonance
Which of the following is not a distortion in perception?
A. Cognitive dissonance
B. Stereotyping
C. Halo effect
D. The recency effect
E. Causal attribution
C. job satisfaction increases
As an employee's age increases, his or her
A. job involvement decreases.
B. absenteeism increases.
C. job satisfaction increases.
D. work motivation decreases.
E. organizational commitment decreases.
A. halo effect
The ______ occurs when we form an impression of an individual based on a single trait.
A. halo effect
B. self-fulfilling prophecy
C. fundamental attribution error
D. self-serving bias effect
E. selective perception error
C. the fundamental attribution bias
The tendency to attribute another person's behavior to his or her personal characteristics rather than to the situation the person is in is called
A. the halo effect.
B. a self-serving bias.
C. the fundamental attribution bias.
D. selective perception.
E. stereotyping.
B. self-fulfilling prophecy
A waiter expects a group of poorly dressed customers to be stingy tippers and gives them poor service, so he gets the result that he expects, a very small tip. This is an example of the
A. halo effect.
B. self-fulfilling prophecy.
C. fundamental attribution bias.
D. self-serving bias.
E. selective perception error.
E. low job satisfaction
Julia really doesn't like her new boss and is not happy with the new tasks she's been assigned and the long hours she's been working. Still, she truly believes in what the company is trying to accomplish. Julia has
A. poor job performance.
B. low job involvement.
C. low organizational commitment.
D. poor job enrichment.
E. low job satisfaction.
C. organizational commitment; perceived stress
Job satisfaction results in stronger ______ and lower levels of ______
A. job involvement; work-life balance.
B. motivation; life satisfaction.
C. organizational commitment; perceived stress.
D. perceived stress; life satisfaction.
E. perceived stress; absenteeism.
C. onboarding
________ programs help employees to integrate and transition to a new job.
A. Organizational citizenship
B. Employee assistance
C. Onboarding
D. Self-efficacy
E. Proactive
C. organizational citizenship behaviors
Miles impressed his boss by making lots of suggestions for department improvements and by putting in many weekend hours to do extra tasks to develop the new procedures. Miles is exhibiting
A. self-efficacy.
B. onboarding traits.
C. organizational citizenship behaviors.
D. the halo effect.
E. counterproductive work behaviors.
E. Diversity
______ represent(s) all the ways people are unlike and alike.
A. Lifestyle
B. Dimensions
C. Background
D. Conditions
E. Diversity
B. Personality
______ is at the center of the diversity wheel.
A. Philosophy
B. Personality
C. Psychometrics
D. Philanthropy
E. Psychology
A. Income
Which of the following dimensions is an example of a secondary dimension on the diversity wheel?
A. Income
B. Race
C. Sexual orientation
D. Physical abilities
E. Age
C. the median age of the american worker is increasing
Which of the following diversity issues is true in the U.S. workforce?
A. Unemployment among the disabled has dropped sharply since the introduction of the Americans with Disabilities Act.
B. Literacy has ceased to be an issue among American workers.
C. The median age of the American worker is increasing.
D. White households continue to have higher median incomes than Asian ones.
E. Among the top 500 U.S. companies, most currently do not yet offer domestic partner benefits for same-sex couples.
B. reasonably accommodate an individual's disability
The Americans with Disabilities Act requires employers to
A. hire all qualified disabled persons who apply
B. reasonably accommodate an individual's disability.
C. hire quotas of qualified disabled persons.
D. actively solicit job applications from disabled persons.
E. hire disabled persons to qualify for tax breaks.
E. Ethnocentrism
______ is the belief that one's native country, culture, language, abilities, or behavior is superior to those of another culture.
A. Reverse discrimination
B. Stereotyping
C. An ethical dilemma
D. Diversity
E. Ethnocentrism
D. stress
______ is the tension people feel when they are facing or enduring extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities and are uncertain about their ability to handle them effectively.
A. Apprehension
B. Role conflict
C. Role overload
D. Stress
E. Anxiety
B. Role overload
When others' expectations exceed one's ability, ______ has occurred.
A. Burnout
B. Role overload
C. Learned helplessness
D. Role conflict
E. Role ambiguity
A. slurred speech
Which of the following is not a symptom of stress?
A. Slurred speech
B. Insomnia
C. Hostility
D. Alcohol abuse
E. Heart attack
E. Alcohol
Which of the following is the most common drug of abuse?
A. Marijuana
B. Tranquilizers
C. Prescription pain medication
D. Methamphetamine
E. Alcohol
C. develop a more formal structure with authoritative supervision
Which of the following is not a suggested strategy for reducing unhealthy stressors in organizations?
A. Rollout employee assistance programs.
B. Recommend a holistic wellness approach.
C. Develop a more formal structure with authoritative supervision.
D. Make jobs interesting.
E. Make career counseling available.
D. Motivation
______ is defined as the psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior.
A. Stimulus
B. Productivity
C. Enticement
D. Motivation
E. Incented action
D. extrinsic reward
Craig's sales manager has just told the group that all sales in the month of September will earn an extra 5% commission. The team gets right to work, being motivated by a(n)
A. intrinsic reward.
B. physiological need.
C. high need for power.
D. extrinsic reward.
E. hygiene factor.
B. Herzberg's two-factor theory
Which of the following is a need-based perspective on motivation?
A. Expectancy theory
B. Herzberg's two-factor theory
C. Job characteristics model
D. Goal-setting theory
E. Equity theory
B. esteem
The need for status, reputation, and recognition are part of
A. self-actualization.
B. esteem.
C. love.
D. safety.
E. physiological.
A. self-actualization
An accounting firm provides employees with educational reimbursements if they complete job-related coursework with a B or better, which helps them meet which of Maslow's levels of needs?
A. Self-actualization
B. Esteem
C. Love
D. Safety
E. Physiological
B. existence
Which of the following is a need in Alderfer's ERG theory?
A. Esteem
B. Existence
C. Realization
D. Rating
E. Generalization
B. power
According to the acquired needs theory, the desire to influence others is part of the need for
A. affiliation.
B. power.
C. self-actualization.
D. relatedness.
E. achievement
C. high need for power
Even when he started his first job, Galen was not content to be just one of the employees. His boss noticed that he often coached his coworkers about ways to improve their work, even when it wasn't his job. Galen probably has a
A. high need for achievement.
B. high need for affiliation.
C. high need for power.
D. low need for achievement.
E. high need for leadership.
E. Maslow's self-actualization needs
McClelland's need for achievement corresponds most closely to
A. Herzberg's hygiene factors.
B. Maslow's esteem needs.
C. extrinsic rewards.
D. Alderfer's relatedness needs.
E. Maslow's self-actualization needs.
D. relationships
According to Herzberg, which of the following is an example of a hygiene factor?
A. Responsibility
B. Advancement
C. The work itself
D. Relationships
E. Recognition
A. motivating
According to Herzberg's two-factor theory, only ______ factors can make employees satisfied with their jobs.
A. motivating
B. self-actualization
C. growth
D. hygiene
E. achievement
B. hygiene factors
Anders is manager for a large freight company. He has noticed low morale lately, perhaps because of the cramped quarters and lack of raises this year among workers on his shift. According to Herzberg, Anders should first concentrate on
A. needs for achievement.
B. hygiene factors.
C. esteem needs.
D. motivating factors.
E. growth needs.
E. process perspectives
Theories that try to understand the thought processes by which people decide how to act are called
A. needs-based perspectives.
B. reinforcement perspectives.
C. job design perspectives.
D. cognitive perspectives.
E. process perspectives.
B. resolve feelings of injustice
In equity theory, employees are motivated to
A. work harder when they have more freedom.
B. resolve feelings of injustice.
C. correct themselves when they aren't working hard enough.
D. blame others when they miss work or fail at tasks.
E. work just hard enough to get what they want.
C. expect that brady will reduce his hours
Brady went to his boss Lynn to complain that he got the same bonus this quarter as everyone else, despite the longer hours he's been putting in and his higher level of experience and efficiency. If Lynn can't change the bonuses, she should
A. tell Brady "That's just the way bonuses are given."
B. suggest that Brady take this up with her boss.
C. expect that Brady will reduce his hours.
D. start documenting Brady's complaints for future disciplinary action.
E. expect that Brady's performance will improve.
B. expectancy
After struggling with the training, Sachin is unsure whether he can complete the end-of-year financial reporting with minimal errors in the time allotted at his new job. In this case, Sachin is low on the ______ element of expectancy theory.
A. valence
B. expectancy
C. outcomes
D. instrumentality
E. performance
A. instrumentality; low
At his review last year, Ryan was promised a big raise if he met his production goals. Raises were included in today's paychecks, and despite that Ryan has met all of his goals, he only received a cost-of-living raise. In the future, Ryan's ______ will probably be
A. instrumentality; low.
B. valence; low.
C. expectancy; low.
D. instrumentality; high.
E. expectancy; high.
B. help workers understand and accept the goals
When using goal-setting theory to motivate employees, managers should
A. set targets that are just out of employees' reach.
B. help workers understand and accept the goals.
C. set general goals that are emotionally appealing.
D. hold employees responsible for getting their own feedback.
E. set goals that are easily achievable.
E. setting goals linked to an action plan
According to goal-setting theory, which of the following is necessary for goals to create high motivation and performance?
A. Setting general goals that will work for multiple employees.
B. Predetermining acceptable rewards for meeting goals.
C. Setting goals that fulfill self-actualization needs.
D. Reinforcing of desired behaviors.
E. Setting goals linked to an action plan.
B. job design
______ involves division of an organization's work and applies motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance.
A. Job enlargement
B. Job design
C. Job simplification
D. Job development
E. Job enrichment
B. poor mental health
Research shows that simplified jobs lead to
A. job satisfaction.
B. poor mental health.
C. a sense of accomplishment.
D. a sense of personal growth.
E. decreased worker productivity.
C. job enrichment
The process of building into a job such motivating factors as recognition and achievement is called
B. job design.
C. job enrichment.
D. job enlargement.
E. horizontal loading.
C. task significance
Of the following, which is a core job characteristic?
A. Meaningfulness
B. Skill specificity
C. Task significance
D. Teamwork
E. Task variety
E. autonomy
The extent to which a job allows an employee to make decisions about scheduling different tasks and deciding how to perform them is called
A. horizontal loading.
B. skill variety.
C. task identity.
D. task significance.
E. autonomy.
D. task significance
As a maintenance person for the Air Force, Craig services aircraft engines, which protects the lives and safety of military personnel and their ability to conduct missions. Craig's job has a high level of
A. autonomy.
B. task identity.
C. skill variety.
D. task significance.
E. context satisfactions.
C. the job characteristics model
The motivating potential score is calculated as part of using
A. reinforcement theory.
B. McClelland's acquired needs theory.
C. the job characteristics model.
D. goal-setting theory.
E. equity theory.
D. positive reinforcement
The use of desirable consequences to strengthen a particular behavior is called
A. constructive feedback.
B. extinction.
C. intrinsic motivation.
D. positive reinforcement.
E. valence.
B. negative reinforcement
Estefan tells one of his staff that he is taking her off of probation since she has corrected her tardiness problem. Estefan is using
A. instrumentality.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. punishment.
D. intrinsic motivation.
E. positive reinforcement.
C. extinction
It has been seven quarters since any employee has received a bonus at R & G Mills, so now the possibility of getting one does not seem to be motivating the workers any longer. In this case, management has inadvertently applied
A. expectancy.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. extinction.
D. intrinsic motivation.
E. punishment.
E.clearly communicate the desired behavior
In using reinforcement, a manager should
A. avoid using punishment.
B. reward both desired and undesired behavior.
C. give all subordinates the same rewards to ensure fairness.
D. save rewards for weekly or monthly celebrations.
E. clearly communicate the desired behavior.
D. the rewards require rarely attainable performance
Which of the following is not an advisable criterion for an effective incentive plan?
A. The rewards are believable.
B. The rewards are linked to performance.
C. The rewards satisfy individual needs.
D. The rewards require rarely attainable performance.
E. The rewards are agreed on by the manager and employees.
A. pay-for-performance
Gabe has a summer job hand-dying shirts that will be sold on the boardwalk. He is paid $3.50 per shirt. This is an example of a ______ compensation plan.
A. pay-for-performance
B. pay-for-knowledge
C. bonus
D. profit-sharing
E. gainsharing
B. gainsharing
A Scanlon plan is a type of ______ compensation plan.
A. pay-for-knowledge
B. gainsharing
C. benchmarking
D. pay-for-performance
E. profit-sharing
B. pay for knowledge
Erica teaches fourth grade at a local elementary school. She significantly increased her salary by earning a master's degree in education. This is an example of
A. pay for performance.
B. pay for knowledge.
C. a bonus.
D. profit sharing.
E. gainsharing.
A. focus on what is accomplished, not hours or locations
Which of the following is the best way to manage virtual teams?
A. Focus on what is accomplished, not hours or locations.
B. When beginning with a virtual team, set the final deadline and reprimand any virtual team members who don't make the deadline.
C. Because you don't have face-to-face contact, relay instructions via phone.
D. Require each team member to keep their own personal record of the work that's been done as a team.
E. Utilize employees on a global team around the clock
B. decreased stress
Which of the following is not a benefit of teamwork in an organization?
A. Increased speed
B. Decreased stress
C. Reduced costs
D. Improved workplace cohesiveness
E. Reduced destructive internal competition
C. team
A _______ is defined as a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves accountable.
A. cross-functional team
B. group
C. team
D. panel
E. formal group
E. formal group
Jane organized several teachers to discuss the school's interior painting scheduled for summer. They looked at several brands, and heard a presentation by a designer who then helped them choose a color palette to recommend to school administrators. In this instance, the teachers make up a(n)
A. self-managed team.
B. virtual team.
C. cross-functional team.
D. informal group.
E. formal group.
B. informal group
In all but the worst weather, Laura and four of her coworkers met each day at 12:15 to walk the wilderness trail behind their office building. This is an example of a(n)
A. continuous improvement team.
B. informal group.
C. self-managed team.
D. virtual team.
E. formal group
C. Cross-functional team
A team composed of people from different departments who are pursuing a common objective is called a
A. quality circle.
B. problem-solving team.
C. cross-functional team.
D. virtual team.
E. work force.
E. virtual team
A team that consists of members who interact by computer network to collaborate on projects is called a(n)
A. remote team.
B. e-team.
C. self-managed team.
D. informal team.
E. virtual team.
D. Action team
A work team that works to accomplish tasks that require people with specialized training and a high degree of coordination is called a(n)
A. production team.
B. project team.
C. development team.
D. action team.
E. advice team
B. a type of advice team
Which of the following is a characteristic of a continuous improvement team?
A. A built-in part of any effective organizational group.
B. A type of advice team.
C. Requires assigned membership.
D. Emerged from self-managed team concept.
E. Encourages high empowerment
B. administrative oversight
Self-managed teams are groups of workers who have been given ______ for their task domains.
A. individual incentives
B. administrative oversight
C. reduced responsibility
D. complete freedom
E. no technology
D. allow members to hire their own coworkers
When using a self-managed team, a manager should
A. maintain detailed monitoring of its performance.
B. create the team within whatever structure currently exists.
C. offer lucrative individual bonuses.
D. allow members to hire their own coworkers.
E. provide elaborate retreats for team discussions.
C. reforming
Which of the following is not one of the stages of group and team development?
A. Norming
B. Storming
C. Reforming
D. Adjourning
E. Performing
B. allow people to socialize
During the forming stage, the leader should
A. establish permanent control.
B. allow people to socialize.
C. empower team members.
D. encourage disagreement.
E. work through team conflicts
A. storming
The group development stage in which individuals test the leader's policies and assumptions as they try to determine how they fit into the power structure is the ______ stage.
A. storming
B. norming
C. performing
D. forming
E. adjourning
B. norming
During the ______ stage of team development, close relationships develop and unity and harmony emerge.
A. storming
B. norming
C. performing
D. forming
E. adjourning
A. norming
The stage during which a group sets guidelines about issues like attendance and punctuality is the ______ stage.
A. norming
B. storming
C. forming
D. adjourning
E. performing
C. group cohesiveness
The principal by-product of the norming stage of team development is
A. adjournment.
B. uncertainty.
C. group cohesiveness.
D. conflict.
E. empowerment.
A. helping the team identify group goals and values
Since hard feelings about group leadership and assignments had passed, Elena's group recently seemed to be relating much better. At the meeting tomorrow she should take advantage of this moment by
A. helping the team identify group goals and values.
B. encouraging members to voice disagreements.
C. helping people get to know each other.
D. empowering the members.
E. throwing a thank-you party.
D. "Can we do the job properly?"
During the performing stage of team development, the group answers the question
A. "Can we agree on roles and work as a team?"
B. "Why are we here?"
C. "Why are we fighting?"
D. "Can we do the job properly?"
E. "Who's in charge?"
A. trust
Which of the following is considered one of the most essential considerations in building a group into an effective team?
A. Trust
B. Promoting groupthink
C. Organizational structure
D. Market stability
E. Size
B. trust
________ is defined as reciprocal faith in others' intentions and behaviors.
A. Cooperation
B. Trust
C. Cohesiveness
D. Unity
E. Fairness
E. emphasizing members' common characteristics
Which of the following is a way managers can enhance team cohesiveness?
A. Isolating the group from the actions of competitors or other threats.
B. Providing team members precise instructions for their tasks.
C. Creating a relatively large team.
D. Assigning members randomly to teams.
E. Emphasizing members' common characteristics.
A. unfair work distribution
Which of the following is a disadvantage of smaller groups?
A. Unfair work distribution
B. Autocratic leadership
C. Lower morale
D. Tendency to form cliques
E. Tendency to take unreasonable risk
B. less commitment
Which of the following is a disadvantage of larger groups?
A. Less creativity and innovation
B. Less commitment
C. More division of labor
D. Fewer resources
E. Fewer cliques
A. roles
Members of a team develop their ______ based on the expectations of the team, of the organization, and of themselves.
A. roles
B. norms
C. groupthink
D. job descriptions
E. social fit
B. task
Marielle points out during the meeting that the group has fallen a half hour behind schedule according to the agenda, and should get back to the important work at hand. She is performing a ______ role.
A. relational
B. task
C. maintenance
D. social
E. production
C. maintenance
Tension was thick in the room as the management team discussed changes to promotion requirements. But then Chris made a joke about Jake's white-knuckled grip on his pen, and the laughter seemed to improve the mood. Chris was acting in a ______ role.
A. relational
B. task
C. maintenance
D. social
E. production
D. to emphasize the group's important values
Nordstrom's department store chain emphasizes the great lengths to which it goes in customer service, an example of which of these reasons to enforce norms?
A. To clarify role expectations.
B. To help the group survive.
C. To create cohesiveness.
D. To emphasize the group's important values.
E. To help individuals avoid embarrassing situations.
A. groupthink
Dave sat through the meeting feeling convinced his team was misinterpreting recent marketing research, but he didn't say anything. The team leader was a close friend. Plus, he didn't want to disrupt the team since he perceived himself to be the only one with reservations. Dave's team appears to be experiencing
A. groupthink.
B. storming.
C. social loafing.
D. norming.
E. devil's advocacy.
C. bring in outside experts for fresh perspectives
To prevent groupthink, a manager should
A. reinforce how capable the group is.
B. never admit errors to outsiders.
C. bring in outside experts for fresh perspectives.
D. encourage everyone to "get with the team."
E. express high confidence in the group's previous decisions.
B. indecision
Which of the following is characteristic of workgroups with too little conflict?
A. Dissatisfaction
B. Indecision
C. Political infighting
D. Lack of teamwork
E. Turnover
C. conflict is at a moderate level
Workplace performance is maximized when
A. conflict is absent.
B. conflict is at a very low level.
C. conflict is at a moderate level.
D. conflict is at a high level.
E. conflict occurs only at nonmanagerial levels.
B. a personality clash
Hannah is on a team with Carson, and they are often in conflict. Hannah likes to begin her work with careful planning and she gets started immediately. Carson, on the other hand, likes trying out several ideas, and tends to be working frantically at the last minute. Their team conflict most likely stems from
A. time pressure.
B. a personality clash.
C. communication failure.
D. ambiguous jurisdictions.
E. inconsistent goals.
D. status differences
Ken, whose primary job is supervising a small production group, is not getting cooperation from all members on the cross-functional team he leads. In particular, Bethany, a marketing manager, seems to resist his direction. The source of conflict in this cause may be
A. time pressure.
B. a personality clash.
C. communication failure.
D. status differences.
E. ambiguous jurisdictions.
B. accommodationg
The conflict-handling style in which a person allows the desires of another to prevail is known as
A. forcing.
B. accommodating.
C. avoiding.
D. collaborating.
E. compromising.
A. avoiding
Rachel missed another deadline and her boss Keri is very upset. She will have to explain to the client again why the project is behind. Keri thinks she may say something she'll regret if she talks to Rachel about this now, so she decides to wait awhile. Keri is using the ______ conflict-handling style.
A. avoiding
B. collaborating
C. compromising
D. forcing
E. accommodating
D. forcing
Malia told her team that she is moving forward with a change to the bonus structure, despite vocal objections from several team members. Malia is using the ______ conflict-handling style.
A. avoiding
B. collaborating
C. compromising
D. forcing
E. accommodating
B. collaborating
The disadvantage of the ______ conflict-handling style is that it is very time consuming.
A. avoiding
B. collaborating
C. compromising
D. forcing
E. accommodating
B. programmed conflict
______ is designed to elicit different opinions without inciting people's personal feelings.
A. Groupthink
B. Programmed conflict
C. Social loafing
D. Storming
E. Dysfunctional conflict
E. the dialectic method
______ is the process of having two people or groups play opposing roles in a debate in order to better understand a proposal.
A. Storming
B. Positive conflict
C. Devil's advocacy
D. Groupthink
E. The dialectic method
D. Influence
Leadership is the ability to _____ employees to pursue organizational goals
A. Force
B. Reward
C. Request
D. Influence
E. Compensate
E. Complementary to each other
According to Kotter, management and leadership are considered to be
A. opposing forces.
B. causal; here, management causes leadership.
C. equivalent to one another.
D. almost entirely unrelated.
E. complementary to each other.
A. solving problems
According to Kotter, companies manage complexity in which of the following ways?
A. Solving problems
B. Motivating people
C. Lobbying the government
D. Innovating new products
E. Setting a direction
E. reward
Jennifer congratulated her staff when the team received an industry award for their project, and also sent a companywide e-mail announcing it. Here, Jennifer is using her ______ power.
A. personalized
B. referent
C. coercive
D. expert
E. reward
C. expert
______ power results from one's specialized knowledge.
A. Legitimate
B. Referent
C. Expert
D. Reward
E. Coercive
B. referent
Tracy is outgoing, warm, and truly inspirational when she talks about where she wants to lead her division. Her employees seem eager to do anything she asks. Because of her personality and not her position, Tracy has ______ power.
A. legitimate
B. referent
C. reward
D. coercive
E. expert
E. consultation
Jesse brought his proposal to Erica even before the meeting saying, "I'm sure you have some ideas on this and we could try to get them incorporated upfront." Jesse is using which influence tactic?
A. Legitimating tactics
B. Inspirational appeals
C. Ingratiating tactics
D. Personal appeals
E. Consultation
A. personal appeal
When Nielle saw Laura in the stockroom stuffing her purse with expensive printer cartridges, Laura was quick to say, "We've been friends since first grade, so I'm sure you won't say anything about this." This is an example of using a(n)
A. personal appeal.
B. legitimating tactic.
C. pressure tactic.
D. coalition tactic.
E. exchange tactic.
B. trait
The ______ approach to leadership attempts to identify distinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of leaders.
A. attribute
B. trait
C. behavior
D. quality
E. contingency
D. project GLOBE
______ studies reveal that visionary and inspirational charismatic leaders who are good team builders generally are most desirable worldwide.
A. Servant leader
B. E-leadership
C. Contingency model
D. Project GLOBE
E. Full-range approach
C. job-centered
Peizhi manages his employees through a careful monitoring of their production, comparing what they do to predicted schedules and desired budgets. Peizhi can best be described as a(n) ______ leader.
A. production-oriented
B. charismatic
C. job-centered
D. transformational
E. employee-centered
E. contingency
The approach to leadership that suggests that effective leadership behavior depends on the situation at hand is the ______ approach.
A. trait
B. transformational
C. circumstantial
D. behavioral
E. contingency
A. poor leader-member relations
Craig's peers were surprised when he received a promotion and suddenly became their supervisor. They thought he was rather unreliable and weren't sure he was up to the task. According to the contingency model, Craig has
A. poor leader-member relations.
B. weak position power.
C. poor worker facilitation.
D. low task structure.
E. unsuccessful leadership adaptation.
E. weak position power
Liz is trying to lead a cross-functional team, but she is having some issues. Most members were other department managers at her level, and they saw no reason to do what she told them to. Here, Liz has
A. low tolerance for ambiguity.
B. high task structure.
C. weak referent power.
D. poor leader-member relations.
E. weak position power.
A. is low
DeAndre leads a task force developing specifications for a new customer database to be used by several departments. DeAndre is an IT supervisor, but most of the others are directors of other departments. At the first meeting, a few of them asked him questions he couldn't answer. According to the contingency model, DeAndre's situational control likely
A. is low.
B. is moderate.
C. is high.
D. is extremely high.
E. cannot be determined from the information.
C. task-oriented
Marco supervises the pool of word processors serving the firm's lawyers. He gets along well with his people, and has created detailed procedures for all types of legal document they encounter. Marco hires and fires, and gives work assignments, performance appraisals, and promotions. According to the contingency model, the optimal leadership style is
A. transformational.
B. team management.
C. task-oriented.
D. relationship-oriented.
E. consideration.
A. try to move to a more suitable situation
In the contingency model, if your leadership orientation does not match the situation in your workplace, Fiedler recommends that you
A. try to move to a more suitable situation.
B. alter your leadership style.
C. take management classes to improve your power.
D. get an assistant with the preferred orientation.
E. gradually change the makeup of your subordinates.
C. laissez-faire
According to the concept of full-range leadership, leadership behaviors vary along a range from ______ leadership at one extreme to transformational leadership at the other.
A. transactional
B. shared
C. laissez-faire
D. servant
E. charismatic
D. They encourage people to do exceptional things
Which of the following is a characteristic of transformational leaders?
A. They are better in stable situations.
B. They clarify employees' roles.
C. They set goals and monitor progress toward their achievement.
D. They encourage people to do exceptional things.
E. They provide rewards in exchange for subordinates doing the work.
D. servant leader
A leader who focuses on providing increased service to others is called a
A. charismatic leader.
B. transformational leader.
C. transactional leader.
D. servant leader.
E. situational leader
B. servant
Karen, the manager of a branch location of a large travel firm, treated company resources as if they were her own and her employees even better. She cared about the staff deeply and even organized international volunteering activities to promote their growth. Karen could best be described as which type of leader?
A. Situational
B. Servant
C. Laissez-faire
D. Shared
E. Transactional
D. significance
Research shows that followers seek and admire leaders who create feelings of
A. anticipation.
B. individualism.
C. clarity.
D. significance.
E. freedom.
B. efficient communicator
When your intended message is sent accurately in the least amount of time, you are a(n)
A. economical communicator.
B. efficient communicator.
C. formal communicator.
D. collaborative communicator.
E. effective communicator.
A. encoding
The process of translating a message into understandable symbols or language is called
A. encoding.
B. transforming.
C. mediating.
D. decoding.
E. enriching.
B. rich
A(n) ______ form of media allows receivers to observe multiple cues, such as body language and tone of voice, and allows senders to get feedback.
A. encoded
B. rich
C. dense
D. complex
E. formal
E. videoconferencing
Of the following, which medium is the richest?
A. Company newsletter
B. Telephone
C. E-mail
D. Memos
E. Videoconferencing
E. newsletter
A manager wants to tell employees that the quarterly project management training will start on April 12, about two months from now. Generally, which of the following should the manager use?
A. Videoconferencing
B. Telephone
C. Personal notes
D. Face-to-face meeting
E. Newsletter
A. sender barrier
Claire wanted to tell her employee about the seminar, but she put the flier in a stack of papers and forgot about it until after the deadline to sign up. This is an example of what type of barrier to communication?
A. Sender barrier
B. Encoding barrier
C. Medium barrier
D. Feedback barrier
E. Receiver barrier
D. receiver barrier
Rodrigo was in meetings all day and didn't get a chance to check his e-mail before he had to pick up his children from daycare, so he missed an important message from a client. This is an example of what type of barrier to communication?
A. Medium barrier
B. Decoding barrier
C. Feedback barrier
D. Receiver barrier
E. Encoding barrier
A. jargon
______ is likely to cause a semantic barrier to communication.
A. Jargon
B. Technology
C. Gossip
D. The grapevine
E. Rhetoric
C. oversized ego
Kelly was recently promoted to manager. Though he used to take advice from his peers, he seems no longer willing to listen to even his superiors and is really running the project how he thinks best. This is an example of which personal barrier to communication?
A. Tendency to judge others' messages.
B. Variable skills in communicating effectively.
C. Oversized ego.
D. Inability to listen with understanding.
E. Variation in interpreting information.
A. writing a thank-you note
Which of the following is not a way in which nonverbal communication is expressed?
A. Writing a thank-you note.
B. Making someone wait an hour in the lobby.
C. Looking away while talking to someone.
D. Grimacing.
E. Touching someone's shoulder.
E. close your eyes
Which of the following is a "don't" when attempting to improve communication?
A. Occasionally nod in agreement.
B. Lean toward the speaker.
C. Speak in a quiet, reassuring tone.
D. Smile and show animation.
E. Close your eyes.
E. externally
Shortly after the end of the fiscal year, Stavanger Investments released an earnings report to clients. This is an example of communicating
A. vertically.
B. upward.
C. horizontally.
D. downward.
E. externally.
E. grapevine; informal
Gossip and rumor in an organization are part of the _____, which itself is a type of ______ communication channel.
A. organization chart; horizontal
B. culture; horizontal
C. organization chart; informal
D. grapevine; horizontal
E. grapevine; informal
C. videoconferencing
Using video and audio links along with computers to allow people at different locations to see, hear, and talk with each other is called
A. telecommuting.
B. collaborative computing.
C. videoconferencing.
D. telecollaborating.
E. using the extranet.
E. increased ability to hire certain workers, such as disabled people
Which of the following is characteristic of telecommuting?
A. Increased capital costs.
B. Attractive to people with high social needs.
C. More difficult recruiting.
D. Increased turnover.
E. Increased ability to hire certain workers, such as disabled people.
B. a third
Generally, people comprehend about ______ of a typical verbal message.
A. 5%
B. a third
C. half
D. two-thirds
E. all
D. mentally summarize what's been said
What do good listeners do during the information gap between what someone says and how fast we process?
A. Daydream.
B. Decide what they will say next.
C. Think about other things.
D. Mentally summarize what's been said.
E. Make a convincing argument against what is being said.
B. comprehensive
A(n) ________ listener tries to determine the rationale of the speaker's argument, preferring logical presentations without interruptions, focusing on relationships among ideas, and waiting until all information is available before expressing opinions.
A. evaluative
B. comprehensive
C. appreciative
D. empathetic
E. impartial
E. most important to least important
When you want your reader to take a logical and fairly nonpolitical action, you should order ideas in your writing from
A. least controversial to most controversial
B. least important to most important
C. negative to positive
D. Positive to negative
E. most important to least important
B. least controversial to most controversial
Galen wants to change the CEO's mind about seeking an outside firm to which they could outsoirce the customer service phone center. He desides to wrtire a proposal, including a variety of arguments to support of his idea. Here, Galen should order his ideas from
A. Most important to least important
B. Least controversial to most controversial
C. negative to positive
D. Positive to negative
E. Least important to most important
E. establish a system of measurements
Reema was recently promoted to facilities director at Harvest Processing. Which of the following should she do immediately as she tries to improve productivity?
A. Use the established technology with which her employees are most familiar.
B. Rotate all personnel so that each has an opportunity to try something new.
C. Hire new employees such that they are similar to those already on the team.
D. Immediately cut costs.
E. Establish a system of measurement.
C. increasing the efficiency of materials
Managers can increase overall productivity by
A. decreasing efficiency of capital.
B. increasing energy.
C. increasing the efficiency of materials.
D. decreasing the efficiency of labor.
E. decreasing outputs.
A. information systems that integrate all aspects of business
Which of the following best describes ERP systems?
A. Information systems that integrate all aspects of business.
B. Comprehensive systems for identifying and measuring changes in productivity.
C. Popular recruiting systems that help to maximize diversity in the workplace.
D. Training systems for employees that allow self-discovery and correction of weaknesses.
E. Control systems in which managers are made aware of all deviations from standards.
E. irregularities
Carlyon Land Development has effective control processes, allowing its managers to discover ______ in bookkeeping right away, before a would-be embezzler could seriously affect its business.
A. team problems
B. a potential merger
C. competence
D. a tax break
E. irregularities
D. quantifiable
Standards are best measured when they are
A. broad.
B. efficient.
C. narrow.
D. quantifiable.
E. ethical.
C. take corrective action
Jimmy's supervisor noticed that he was struggling with the computerized setup for production runs at his new job. The supervisor sat next to him while he tried it again and gave suggestions for improvement. The supervisor is doing which step of the control process?
A. Compare performance to standards.
B. Establish standards.
C. Take corrective action.
D. Measure performance.
E. Control productivity.
A. human resources
Tara was required to take a word processing test as part of her application for an executive assistant position. This control is part of the ______ area.
A. human resources
B. physical
C. financial
D. informational
E. structural
A. decentralized
______ control is an approach to organizational control that is characterized by informal and organic structural arrangements.
A. Decentralized
B. Functional
C. Relational
D. Bureaucratic
E. Market
E. emphasis on accountability
Which of the following is not a common characteristic of successful control systems?
A. Results oriented
B. Realistic
C. Encouragement of self-control
D. Flexible
E. Emphasis on accountability
C. overemphasis on means instead of ends
Recruiters for Littleton University were under extreme pressure to meet their objective of a 10% increase in the size of the freshman class. As a result, they admitted many students who were not qualified and who failed to perform in classes. This is an example of which problem associated with control systems?
A. Overemphasis on one instead of multiple approaches.
B. Overemphasis on paperwork.
C. Overemphasis on means instead of ends.
D. Too much control.
E. Too little participation.