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Includes parts of a plant


grouping organisms based on similar characteristics

binomial nomenclature

a scientific name consisting of a two-part name
Example: Homo sapiens


Person who developed the system of binomial nomenclature

Classification system based on physical traits


person who developed the theory of modern evolution and natural selection


organism where the cell(s) does/do NOT have a nucleus containing its genetic information (DNA)


organism where the cell(s) has/have a nucleus containing its genetic information (DNA)


a group of SPECIES that have similar characteristics


number of kingdoms that scientists currently use in their classification system:

Animals, plants, fungi, protists, archaebacteria, eubacteria

Archaeabacteria domain

domain that includes bacteria that may survive in polar ice caps or steaming hot springs - extreme environments


Bacteria domain (Eubacteria)

domain that includes "normal" bacteria that may cause human diseases or spoil food


Eukarya domain

domain that includes multicellular organisms whose cells have a nucleus containing their DNA


Includes 4 Kingdoms:



kingdom where organisms are plant-like, animal-like, or fungus-like

multicellular or unicellular

heterotrophic or autotrophic



kingdom where multicellular organisms like mushrooms absorb nutrients from their environment

sexual and asexual reproduction

Look like plants but obtain their food like animals.

Common structures with plants are rhizoids, hyphae.


kingdom of all eukaryotes (ex. insects and birds) that need to consume food to get energy



kingdom of all eukaryotes that have cells containing chloroplasts and large vacuoles



one-celled organism
"Uni" means one.


organisms that have more than one cell in them.


Make their own food for energy through the process of photosynthesis. auto (self) + troph (nourishment)


Must find an external source for food
hetero means other + troph means nourishment


any change that will cause an organism to react.


grouping of things according to characteristics which are traits, features, qualities, etc.

Levels of Classification

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

To remember, think: King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti

Eukarya Kingdoms

Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists

Scientific Name

made up of an organism's genus name and species name


First word in an organism's scientific name.


Second word in an organism's scientific name.

Binomial Nomenclature

Two-word system to name the various species using
the genus and species names together

bi means two + nomen means name

Plant Kingdom

All plants are multicellular autotrophs and do not have structures to move from place to place.


Process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into food, also known as glucose or sugar. Oxygen is given off.


Process by which plants give off water through openings in their leaves.



Archaebacteria - live in extreme conditions
Eubacteria - common bacteria

2 groups of bacteria

Cell membrane composition
DNA replication
Resistance to extreme environments

What are 3 differences between Archaebacteria and Eubacteria which caused scientists to separate them into 2 different domains?

Linnean taxonomy

A classification system based on physical traits.

Uses binomial nomenclature to give scientific names to each species.


arranges species based on evolutionary relationships

Genetic comparisons

organizes species based on their genetic similarities to each other.

By shape, size, structure, and the host they infect.

How are viruses classified?


Contain DNA and RNA but are not living.

Attaches to host cells and uses the host cell's material to replicate.

Enters the host cell either through active transport through the cell membrane or by enzymes breaking down the host cell's wall to enter the host cell.

lytic - the virus enters the host cell, replicates, and destroys the cell in order to get out and spread to other host cells.

lysogenic - the virus incorporates its DNA into the DNA of the host cell. It stays dormant and replicates with the cell DNA until the cell is in danger of dying. Then the lysogenic infection will become lytic in order to spread to other host cells.

Two types of viral infections.

Think "Lysol" which kills 99.9% of viruses.


A plant with seeds enclosed in an ovary; any plant with a flower or fruit

Reproduce sexually


A nonflowering vascular plant that disperses its seeds from cones

Reproduce sexually

Uses pollen and seeds for sexual reproduction

Vascular tissues
Woody tissues

What are some adaptations of plants?


Waxy covering adapted to protect plants from gas and water loss.


Specialized cells that open and close, developed because the cuticle was not enough to control the exchange of gases into and out of the plant.

Stomata allows carbon dioxide, water vapor and oxygen to move into and out of the leaf.


haploid structures that developed as a way for land plants to reproduce asexually. Once they find an environment conducive for growth, they develop into a new plant.

Vascular tissue

Allows the transport of water, nutrients, and food between the ground and the body of the plant.

There are two types of vascular tissues:

1. xylem - brings water and nutrients up from the roots to the rest of the plant.

2. phloem - carries glucose made during photosynthesis to the rest of the plant cells.

Woody tissue/bark

For a plant to access sunlight, it must grow against the force of gravity. Land plants need rigid cell walls to support their own weight as they grow taller and wider.


powdery substance containing the male reproductive cells of a plant. When combined with a female plant cell, a seed forms.

The bee in this image is an example of a "pollinator."
Pollinator - an animal, insect or other means to transfer pollen from one plant to another.


Different from spores.

Seeds form through sexual reproduction and contain an embryo. Seeds spread in multiple ways and have evolved unique adaptations to aid in their dispersal. Some seeds, like those of a dandelion, float with the wind. Others, like the tiny seeds of some pine cones, have winglike appendages that catch the wind.

Cladistics classification system

Based on evolution from ancestors to descendents.


releases enzymes to break down food


produce gametes

ground tissue

involved in photosynthesis, storage, and support

Gymnosperms produce male and female cones, and the pollen from the male cone fertilizes the female cone.

Compare the male and female reproductive structures of a gymnosperm.

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