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ADV 4313 Test 1
Terms in this set (97)
what are the different aspects of globalization
-movement of capital goods and services
-movement of knowledge
-movement of people
What are the three waves of globalization
frist wave (late 1800- early 1900s)
-advantages in transportation and technology
second wave (1945-1980)
-growth of international trade and investment
International monetary fund (IMF)
-promote international trade
Third wave (1980-present)
-Further advances in transportation and communication
-Declining tariffs on manufactured goods
what are the major reasons for the growth of international business?
-saturate domestic markets
-higher profit margins in foreign markets
-emergence of new markets
What are the major reasons for the growth of international advertising?
-growth in advertising expenditures worldwide
-trend toward international ad agencies
how did brands like Coca-Cola attempt to unite people around the world through advertising?
-Coca-Cola as "the commodity that unites cultures around the world"
-They use the same ads all around the world
what does it mean to say that global media have created a global village?
-global media connected individuals
-it promoted uniqueness and diversity
according to McLuhan, do global media promote homogeneity or heterogeneity
-research does not support convergence of values (homogeneity)
What are the three schools of international advertising
-advertisements and campaigns should be uniform across countries
-advertisements and campaigns should be adapted to local culture
-middle of the road approach
-also referred to as globalization "think global, act local"
-global consumers market segments
-globalization and convergence of values and taste.
-similar to physiological and psychological needs
-no such thing as global consume markets.
-differences in culture, economy, laws and regulations across the world.
-recognizes vast cultural differences, but also believes some standardization is possible and even desirable
Standardizations pros and cons
-pros: cost saving and consistent with brand image
-cons: message doesn't resonate with target audience
adaptations pros and cons
-pros: maximum effectiveness of message
-cons: accurate product positioning
Compromise pros and cons
what factors are important when deciding between standardize or adapt marketing practices?
-marketer has complete control over decisions.
-correspondes to standardize in advertising
-local managers make decisions.
-corresponds adaptation in marketing
What are the characteristics of a classic (ultimate) global brand
-strategic principles and marekting
is there such thing as an ultimate global brand?
-no not really.
-not every brand is available or has consistent names through out the world
-Coca-Cola is pretty close to an ultimate global brand
why might global companies choose to use different names or products or advertising?
-changing the name, product or the advertising is just a better way for global companies to connect with their international customers.
what is the country-of-origin effect?
-brand is typically associated with a different country of origin.
-can either be positive or negative
-attitudes affected by image of country
what perceptions do consumers have of home brands?
-rooted in culture and history creates a:
-higher perceptions of quality, trust, and reliability
What are the different strategies for internationalizing a brand?
-Cultive establish local brands
-adapt local brands
-create a new global brand
-globalize brands by developing extensions
-employ multi-local strategy
cultivate establish local brands
-develop national brand into international brand with uniform values, concepts and products
Adapt Local Brands
-develop national brand into international brand uniform, concept, but localized values and products
Create a new global brand
-develop new global brands to satisfy global needs
Globalize brands by developing extensions
-Extend brand name to relate products to recap benefits of global marketing communication
Employ multi-local strategy
-develop different stratifies for different countries to maximize local responsiveness
what does it mean to rationalize a brand portfolio?
-Reducing the number of brands owned by a company
what is the risk of doing this?
-can destroy capital investments and can leave holes in the market for local competition
-And harmonizing brand names could confuse consumers
Why mights a company wish to develop a mixed brand portfolio?
-global brands offer economies of scale, but local offer flexibility to respond to local consumer needs.
-Ex: The Coca-cola company
-part of the Rokeach Value survey
-part of the Rokeach Vale Survey
-desiravle personal traits to help reach end-states
What were Rokeach's assumptions about vales?
-total number of values an individual possesses is relatively small
Are there any that are particularly problematic?
-People everywhere possess the same values, but to varying degree= very problematic, because everywhere doesn't have the same set of value all over
What are the problems associated with measuring values cross-cultrally?
-value proximities may vary
-terminal values of one culture may serve as instrumental values in other countries
-some values are culture specific
What are three characteristics of culture
-Learned not inherent ot innate
-shared by members of a group or shared language
-Facets of culture are interrelated
What does it mean to sat that we are all products of culture?
-culture shapes how we think, what movies us; how we relate to one another; how we live, eat, relax, enjoy ourselves, etc.
How does culture act as a lens?
-culture influences the way we perceive the world
-culture influences what we do, see, and what we don't see
What is subculture
-variations of cultures: race ethnicity, religion, political groups, consumption
-point of view of a member of culture.
-insider point of view
-lets the data speak for itself
-point of view from the observer.
-relies on existing theory and conceptual framework as a starting point
-etic= you go with a theory
-etic= go in with a framework already in mind
-viewing other countries from our own "culturally tinted glasses" often lead to incorrect assumptions
-"people's tendency to place themselves at the center of the universe and not only evaluate others by those standards of their own culture but also believe that their own culture is superior to all the others"
-common tendency across cultures
which expressions of culture are included in a cultural onion
-values, expressions of culture, symbols, heroes, rituals
What is the most superficial of these expressions?
how would you characterize the relationship between advertising and rituals
-advertising can influence how we participate in rituals.
-create rituals around consumption of products
What is the relationship between language and culture
-culture influences language, and cultural expression
How is spoken language an expression of culture
-one word can have different meanings.
-different words can mean the same thing.
-one word can be harmless for someone but offensive to others
What is the Spair-Whorf hypothesis?
-language influences culture
How is body language an expression of culture
body movement= hand gestures and postures
-eye contact and gaze= direct vs. indirect
-space= intimate, personal, social and public distance
-digital vs. analog= digital is an on/off switch vs. dimmer like an analog
-analytical vs. holistic= focusing on most salient details vs. whole situations
-evidence vs. intuition= support with facts vs. feelings
What are international marketing blunders often the result of?
-results from carelessness or poor judgment
-ignorance of marco-environmental factors
-ignorance of cultural differences
-high value placed on words
-communication is explicit, direct and unambiguous
-high value on visuals and context cues
-message is implicit, indirect, ambiguous
How can low context help advertising?
-advertising emphasizes merits of the product; includes product information, facts, and evidence
how can high context help advertising?
-advertising appeals to emotions; includes fewer information cues; more imagery
What are the different ways in which culture shapes different aspects of time?
-need for closure
-time orientation as past, present, and future
-time orientation as linear or circular
-time as monochromic pr polychromic
-relationship with nature
how would you describe cultures that have high need for closure?
-consumers engage in thorough information searches
-consumers make decisions with great certainty
-perserve history and traditions
-look to the past for inspiration
-see the past as unimportant and the future as unpredictable
-leave the old behind and embrace the new
-let the (short-term) future guide present action
-sequential (beginning,middle and end)
-tangible (save, spend, find, lose, waste)
-complete tasks one at a time
-days are structured
-punctuality is important
-complete tasks simultaneously
-days are less structured -interrupting is common
Sequence of events as cause-effect
-preference for concrete, measurable causes that precede the effect
Sequence of events may be unrelated
-accept mystical explanations
What are the different ways that cultures can relate to nature?
-mastery over nature= man conquers
-Harmony with nature= man lives in harmony
-Subjugation to nature= man is dominated by nature
according to Hofestede, what is culture analogous to?
- like a cultural onion
Do hofestede's dimensions of cultural difference help to facilitate an epic or etic approach
-degree to which less power members of a society accept and except that power is distributed unequally
High power distance cultures
-accept hierarchies, obey authority, respect elders, display dependency, place importance on status
Lower power distance cultures
-stress equality and opportunity, dislike authority, value independence
Suggestions for advertisers for low and high power distance cultures
-high power= use endorsements
-low power= provide facts, let consumers decided for themselves
Individualism vs (collectivism)
-importance of the individuality vs. group
Suggestions for advertisers
for individuals and collectivism
-individualism= emphasize individuality. Focus on one person
-collectivism= emphasize independence. focus on groups
Masculinity vs (Femininity
Degree of assertiveness, performance, orientation and differentiation of gender roles
suggestions for advertisers when it comes to masculinity vs femininity
masculinity= emphasize winning, performance, status. Use comparison
femininity= Show characteristics in nurturing relationships. Avoid gender role stereotypes
-degree to which people feel threatened by and avoid uncertainty or ambiguous situations
suggestions for advertisers for uncertainty avoidance
-strong= provide facts and reasons why, emphasize product safety. Use serious tone.
-Weak= use symbolic appeals. Use humorous tone
-focus on future
-tend to be self-reliant
-have strong work ethic
-focus on the past or present
-tend to be religious
Suggestions for different orientations
-long-term= emphasize savings
-short-term=emphasize product results
Indulgence vs. (restraint)
-extend to which people try to control their desires and impulses
Suggestions for advertisers when it comes to Indulgence vs. (restraint)
-indulgence=emphasize ability to satisfy "wants" the "latest"
-restraint= emphasize ability to satisfy basic needs
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