American History I - Unit 7
Manifest Destiny and Expansion
Terms in this set (50)
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
Reasons for moving westward
escape debt/establish new life
possibility of gold
new market opportunities
discovery of new harbors/trading routes
more space for population growth
Obstacles while moving westward
Native American attacks
running out of supplies
Santa Fe Trail
A trail that extends from Missouri to New Mexico; an important route for settlers moving west in the 1800s
Large tract of land in the upper northwest portion of the North American continent; it was shared and disputed between the British, Americans and for a brief time the Russians; it had many fertile valleys and mountainous terrain
Election of 1844
James K. Polk = 11th POTUS
expansionist, wants lands in Oregon and Mexico (California, Texas, New Mexico, etc)
54' 40" or Fight!
Polk's slogan for establishing the border in the Oregon Territory between US and British Canada
1836 - rebellion in which Texas gained independence from Mexico
1835, Mexicans held siege on the Alamo (in San Antonio), Texans lost great number of people, "Remember the Alamo"
The attempt of Texas to be absorbed by the USA after its successful rebellion from Mexico in 1836; turned down in the U.S. Congress over fears of adding more slave territory; after Texas is annexed in 1845, it helps lead to the Mexican-American War of 1848
Add a territory onto an existing state or country.
started over border disputes (US claimed the Texas/Mexico border was the Rio Grande)
Polk sent General Taylor to defend the border.
US politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States
First president of the Republic of Texas
Stephen F. Austin
Founded a colony for Americans in Mexican Texas.
Influencial in promoting self government for Texas
General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th POTUS (1848)
Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but was defeated.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million.
Purchase of land from Mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-Mexico boundary
due to a discovery of gold in California
resulted in mass migration to California between 1848-1850
those who were seeking gold in California during the Gold Rush
named this because much of the migration to California happened in 1849
"Old fuss and feathers," whose conquest of Mexico City brought the U.S. victory in the Mexican War
Compromise of 1850
Proposed by Henry Clay. Had 5 parts:
1) California enters Union as free state.
2) Texas given $10 million to give up disputed land.
3) No sale of slaves in DC.
4) Fugitive Slave Act
5) Popular sovereignty would decide the future of slavery in NM and UT
"Great Compromiser"; proposed the Compromise of 1850, leaves DC when it is first rejected
John C. Calhoun
Against the Compromise of 1850, dies in 1850 and southerners agree to pass the compromise
rule by the people through voting
Fugitive Slave Act
required northerners to assist in the return of runaway slaves, fined/jailed if found to be helping runaway slaves
A secret cooperative network that aided fugitive slaves in reaching sanctuary in the free states or in Canada in the years before the abolition of slavery in the United States
the most successful of the conductors that helped lead over 300 people to their freedom in the north by the Underground Railroad
Uncle Tom's Cabin
1852 novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe that depicted all of the horrors of Southern slavery in great detail, helped to fuel abolitionist sentiment in the North.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Stephen A. Douglas
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine
Kansas Nebraska Act
Created by Stephen Douglas so he could build a transcontinental railroad. Allowed popular sovereignty to decide whether states would be free or slave. Resulted in Bleeding Kansas
name given to the Kansas territory because of violent raids by both the antislavery faction and the proslavery faction in Kansas.
radical abolitionist active during Bleeding Kansas; responsible for the Pottawatomie Creek Massacre and the Raid on Harper's Ferry. Became a martyr for the abolitionist movement after his failure during the raid and subsequent execution.
Caning of Sumner
Senator Charles Sumner criticized the southerners for Bleeding Kansas and insulted Senator Andrew Butler of SC. Butler's nephew responded by coming to the Senate floor and beating Sumner unconscious with a cane. Sumner could not return to the Senate for 3 years.
in 1850, President Taylor died suddenly and Vice President Millard Fillmore took the presidency. President Fillmore signed the compromise of 1850
favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Secret Nativist political party that opposed Immigration during the 1840's and early 1850's. Officially called the American Party
Anti-slavery expansion party of the mid-1800s, eventually joined the Republican party
(1804-1869) Democrat - 14th President of the United States, whose popularity in the North sunk after he was in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise
created in 1854 as a direct result of the passage of the Kansas Nebraska Act and Fugitive Slave Act. Initially made up of Free-Soilers, antislavery Whigs, and some Democrats.
editor of the New York Tribune, a founder of the Republican party, reformer and politician; He helped support reform movements and anti-slavery efforts through his New York Tribune newspaper
Democrat, The 15th President of the United States (1857-1861). He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
1857 - Famous Supreme Court case where Dred Scott attempted to sue for his freedom because his master had taken him to free states. The court ruled:
1) slaves were property
2) slaves were not citizens, therefore had no power to sue
3) the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
Election of 1860
Republican - Lincoln; Northern Democrat - Douglas; South threatens secession if Lincoln wins - Lincoln's election to POTUS causes 7 states to secede.
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
South Carolina Secession
Event that happened as direct result of the election of Abraham Lincoln; it began the exodus by southern states from the Union
elected president of the Confederate States of America
firing on this fort on April 12, 1861 by the South officially began the Civil War
Land given over to the USA at the end of the Mexican-American war of 1848
James K. Polk
He was president from 1845-1849; he pushed through the acquisition of Texas as the 28th state; he presided over the USA during the Mexican-American War of 1848
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