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160 terms

Food and Nutrition (comprehensive- ALL UNITS)

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Absorption
the passage of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract into either the blood or the tissue fluid surrounding the cells
Amino acid
one of the building blocks of protein molecules
Appetite
a desire to eat
Calorie
a measurement of the amount of energy produced when food is burned by the body; In science, it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 g of water 1.0 degrees Celsius.
Deficiency disease
a disease caused by the lack of a specific necessary element in the body; examples include pellagra, rickets, anemia, goiter,kwashiorkor, night blindness and osteoporosis
Fat soluble vitamin
vitamins that are absorbed and transported by fats; includes vitamins A, D, E and K
Diabetes mellitus
lack of or inability to use the hormone insulin, which results in the guild up of glucose in the bloodstream
Digestion
the process by which the body breaks down food into useable nutrients
Fallacy
a mistaken belief
Glucose
type of simple sugar; The body's primary energy source and the only energy source for the brain and nervous system; the basic sugar moleculefrom which all other carbohydrates are built.
Malnutrition
poor nutrition over an extended period of time which can be caused by an inadequate diet or the body
Metabolism
the process by which living cells use nutrients in many chemical reactions that provide energy for vital processes and activities
Nutrient
chemical substances in food that help to maintain the body
Nutrition
the study of nutrients and how they are used by the body
Obesity
weighing twenty percent or more above desirable weight for height; In an adult, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or more
Osteoporosis
a condition caused by a calcium deficiency which results in porous, brittle bones and a loss in bone density
RDA
suggested levels of nutrient intake to meet the needs of most healthy people
Saliva
a mucus and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth that begins to break down starches and makes food easier to swallow
Taste buds
sensory organs located on various parts of the tongue
Trace elements
elements or minerals needed in very small amounts
Vitamins
nutrients that don't provide energy or build body tissue, but help regulate these and other body processes
Water soluble vitamin
a vitamin, specifically vitamin C or one of the B complex vitamins, that dissolves in water; are not stored in the body
Budget
an orderly program for spending, saving, and investing the money you earn to achieve desired goals; also called a financial plan or spending plan
Caterer
someone who owns a business in which food and beverages are prepared for small and large parties, banquets, weddings, and other large gatherings
Conservation
protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm
Consumer advocate
someone who acts or intercedes on the behalf of another who buys goods or services
Dietician
a health care professional who has training in nutrition and diet planning
Entrepreneur
a person who owns and runs his or her own business
FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
an agency in charge of ensuring the safety of all foods sold except meat, poultry, and seafood
Food scientist
experts who work with the sources of nutrients for living things
Multi tasking
fitting tasks together to make the best use of time; doing two tasks at the same time
Nutrition labeling
an analysis of a food product's contributions to an average diet that appears on the product packaging
Open dating
a system of putting dates on perishable and semi-perishable foods to help consumers obtain products that are fresh and wholesome
Precycling
thinking about how packaging materials can be reused or recycled before buying a product
Pre preparation
any step done in advance to save time when getting a meal ready
Semi prepared foods
a convenience food that still requires some preparation before being served
USDA (US Department of Agriculture)
an agency that monitors the safety and quality of poultry, eggs, and meat products
Work simplification
doing a job in the easiest, simplest, and quickest way possible
Conservation
protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm
Contaminant
an undesirable substance that unintentionally gets into food
Convenience foods
food products that have had some amount of service added to it
Food additive
a substance added to food products that causes desired changes in the products
Hydroponics
using nutrient-enriched water to grow plants without soil
Pesticides
chemicals used to kill pests during plant growth; can cause food contamination
Shelf life
the amount of time a food product can be safely stored before deteriorating
Technology
the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes such as reaching goals, meeting needs, and solving problems
Work center
section in a kitchen that has been designed around a specific activity
Work triangle
imaginary triangle formed by the refrigerator, stove and sink; are the focal points of the major work centers in a kitchen
Combination oven
an oven that can do two types of cooking, such as conventional and convection
Convection cooking
method of cooking in which foods are baked or roasted in a stream of heated air
Convection oven
an oven that uses a fan to circulate hot air over food
Energy guide
a yellow tag that is displayed on an all newly purchased major appliances which shows an estimated, yearly energy usage for the product
Hot spots
areas of food that during cooking reach a higher temperature than surrounding areas due to receiving a greater concentration of energy
Service contract
repair and maintenance insurance purchased to cover a product for a specific length of time
Standing time
the time during which foods finish cooking by internal heat after being removed from the cooking appliance
Warranty
a written promise by a manufacturer that a product will meet specified standards of performance
Microwave oven
a cooking device which uses invisible waves of energy that cause water molecules to rub against each other and produce heat which cooks the foods
Wave patterns
the repeated cycle in which energy in a microwave oven is emitted by the magnetron tube
Combination oven
an oven that can do two types of cooking, such as conventional and convection
Bacteria
single celled microorganisms that live in soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals
Canning
the process of preserving food by heating and sealing it in airtight containers for storage
Cross contamination
the transfer of harmful bacteria from one food to another food
Food borne Illness
a disease transmitted by food
Heimlich maneuver
procedure that removes food or other obstacles from a choking person's airway
Irradiation
a commercial food preservation method that exposes food to gamma rays to increase shelf life and kill harmful microorganisms
Safety
the condition of being secure from threat of danger, harm or loss
Sanitation
maintaining a clean condition in order to promote hygiene and prevent disease
Temperature danger zone
zone from 41F° to 135F° in which foods should not be stored or kept for long periods of time due to risk of spoilage and bacteria growth
A la carte
food offered with a separate price for each food item on the menu
A la mode
topped with ice cream
Appetizer
light food or beverage that begins a meal and is designed to stimulate the appetite
Au jus
serving food with the pan drippings from which the fat has been skimmed
Beverageware
glasses of many shapes and sizes used for a variety of purposes
Blue plate service
a type of meal service in which the plates are filled in the kitchen, carried to the dining room, and served
Buffet service
style of meal service in which a large table or buffet holds a variety of food items, the serving dishes and utensils, dinnerware, flatware, and napkins and from which guests serve themselves
Compromise service
a combination of English and formal service.; The main course of the meal is served at the table by the host and the remainder of the meal is served in individual portions from the kitchen.
Cover
the arrangement of the tableware that each diner will need for a meal; also called a place setting
Dinnerware
plates, cups, saucers, and bowls
Dutch treat
an arrangement of paying in which each person pays his own way
English service
a style of meal service in which the plates are served by the host and/or hostess and passed around the table until each guest has been served
Entrée
the main course of a meal
Etiquette
manners established by society
Family service
a service style that allows diners to join others in a setting where large dishes of food are placed on a table for self-service
Formal service
when you are served with porcelain or fine china
Gratuity
money charged or left as a tip for service
Hollowware
tableware, such as bowls, tureens, and pitchers, used to serve food and liquids
Open stock
tableware that can be purchased as individual pieces
Reservation
an arrangement with a restaurant to hold a table, or with a hotel to hold a room, for a guest on a given date at a given time
Stemware
glassware with three distinct parts a bowl, a stem, and a base
Table appointments
all the items needed at the table to serve and eat a meal
Table linens
tablecloths, placemats and napkins
Bake
cook in the oven in dry heat without a cover
Barbecue
to cook by broiling, grilling, roasting, or baking; traditionally to cook meat on a rack or spit over hot coals
Baste
to spoon pan liquids over the surface of food during cooking to keep the food moist and add flavor
Batter
a flour and liquid mixture with a consistency ranging from a thin liquid to a stiff liquid depending on the proportion of dry to liquid ingredients
Beat
mix or stir quickly, bringing the contents of bowl to the top and down again
Blend
to mix ingredients until thoroughly combined
Braise
a long, slow combination cooking technique in which food is seared and then simmered in enough liquid to cover no more than 2/3 of the food
Bread
to coat a food item with crumbs and egg
Broil
a dry cooking method in which food is cooked directly under a primary heat source
Brown
to turn the surface of a food brown by quickly cooking it in hot fat or placing it under a broiler
Candy
to cook in sugar syrup until coated or crystallized
Caramelization
the chemical browning reaction that can occur when a sugar is heated; characteristic color and flavor develops
Coat
to thoroughly cover a food with a liquid or a dry mixture
Core
to remove the center part or stem of a fruit or vegetable leaving a hole
Cream
to blend until smooth and fluffy
Cut in
to combine solid fat with dry ingredients until lumps of the desired size remain; may be done using a pastry blender, two knives, or a fork
Deep fry
to cook in a large amount of hot fat
Dice
to cut into very small cubes even size
Dredge
to coat a food by sprinkling it with or dipping it in a dry ingredient such as flour or breadcrumbs
Dress
to trim and clean, commonly associated with poultry and fish
Equivalent
the same amount expressed in different ways by using different units of measure
Flake
to break fish into small pieces with a fork
Flour
to sprinkle or coat with flour
Fold
to add ingredients carefully as not to lose air bubbles; the utensil is passed down through the mixture, across the bottom, and up the opposite side of the bowl, gently turning the mixture over
Fry
to cook in hot fat
Garnish
decorative, edible items added to enhance the appearance of the main food item
Glaze
to coat a food item with a liquid, usually a syrup, to produce a shiny covering
Grate
to shred food into coarse pieces by rubbing it on the teeth of a utensil or rough surface
Grease
to coat food or utensils with a layer of oil or shortening
Grilling
a method of short order cooking on a griddle
Julienne
to cut into long narrow strips
Knead
a mixing process in which dough is folded, pressed, and squeezed to strengthen the gluten strands and allow yeast dough to develop the proper texture
Marinate
to soak foods in a liquid to improve texture or flavor. The liquid generally contains herbs, spices, and other flavoring ingredients, as well as oil, and an acid, such as wine, vinegar, or lemon juice to break down the connective tissue of meat
Mince
to cut into very fine pieces
Mold
to shape by hand or by pouring into a form to achieve a desired structure
Pan broil
to cook without fat in an uncovered skillet without grease and pouring off excess fat as it accumulates
Parboil
to boil briefly as a preliminary or incomplete cooking procedure
Pare
to remove the stem and outer covering of a vegetable or fruit with a paring knife or peeler
Pit
to remove the seed of a fruit or vegetable
Poach
to cook in a small amount of simmering liquid
Preheat
to heat the oven to the correct temperature before adding the food
Puree
to put food through a fine sieve or a food mill to form a thick and smooth liquid
Quarter
to cut into four equal parts
Recipe
detailed instructions for preparing particular foods
Reconstitute
to return to a previous state by adding water, also called rehydration
Reduce
to decrease the quantity of a liquid and intensify the flavor by boiling
Roast
to cook uncovered in the oven with dry heat
Roll
to shape into a round mass, to flatten dough to an even thickness with a rolling pin
Saute´
to cook food in a small amount of fat, stirring or flipping it frequently
Scald
to heat a liquid to just below the boiling point; to dip food into boiling water or pour boiling water over the food
Scallop
to cover with a sauce and bake
Score
to make small, shallow cuts on the surface of a food
Season
to add herbs, spices or other ingredients to a food to increase flavor
Sift
to put a 54. dry ingredient through a sieve or sifter to remove lumps
Simmer
a moist cooking technique in which food is cooked slowly and steadily in a liquid just below the boiling point ( 185 degrees 200 degrees F)
Skim
to remove a substance from the surface of a liquid
Sliver
to cut into long slender pieces
Steam
to cook with vapor produced by a boiling liquid without allowing it to come into contact with the water
Steep
to cover with boiling water and let stand without additional heating until flavor and color is extracted as for tea
Sterilize
to make free from living microorganisms, as bacteria, or their viable spores
Stew
to cook one food or several foods together in a seasoned liquid for a long period of time
Stir fry
a dry cooking technique, foods cook quickly in a small amount of fat over high heat while stirring constantly; generally uses a wok, a large pan with sloping side
Strain
to separate solids from a liquid
Toast
to make the surface of a food brown by applying direct heat
Truss
to prepare fowl for cooking by binding the wings and legs with string or skewers
Strain
to separate solids from a liquid
Toast
to make the surface of a food brown by applying direct heat
Whip
to beat rapidly usually with a whisk to increase volume and incorporate air
Yield
the number of servings, or portions, that a recipe produces