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the passage of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract into either the blood or the tissue fluid surrounding the cells
a measurement of the amount of energy produced when food is burned by the body; In science, it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 g of water 1.0 degrees Celsius.
a disease caused by the lack of a specific necessary element in the body; examples include pellagra, rickets, anemia, goiter,kwashiorkor, night blindness and osteoporosis
Fat soluble vitamin
vitamins that are absorbed and transported by fats; includes vitamins A, D, E and K
lack of or inability to use the hormone insulin, which results in the guild up of glucose in the bloodstream
type of simple sugar; The body's primary energy source and the only energy source for the brain and nervous system; the basic sugar moleculefrom which all other carbohydrates are built.
poor nutrition over an extended period of time which can be caused by an inadequate diet or the body
the process by which living cells use nutrients in many chemical reactions that provide energy for vital processes and activities
weighing twenty percent or more above desirable weight for height; In an adult, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or more
a condition caused by a calcium deficiency which results in porous, brittle bones and a loss in bone density
a mucus and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth that begins to break down starches and makes food easier to swallow
nutrients that don't provide energy or build body tissue, but help regulate these and other body processes
Water soluble vitamin
a vitamin, specifically vitamin C or one of the B complex vitamins, that dissolves in water; are not stored in the body
an orderly program for spending, saving, and investing the money you earn to achieve desired goals; also called a financial plan or spending plan
someone who owns a business in which food and beverages are prepared for small and large parties, banquets, weddings, and other large gatherings
someone who acts or intercedes on the behalf of another who buys goods or services
FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
an agency in charge of ensuring the safety of all foods sold except meat, poultry, and seafood
an analysis of a food product's contributions to an average diet that appears on the product packaging
a system of putting dates on perishable and semi-perishable foods to help consumers obtain products that are fresh and wholesome
USDA (US Department of Agriculture)
an agency that monitors the safety and quality of poultry, eggs, and meat products
the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes such as reaching goals, meeting needs, and solving problems
imaginary triangle formed by the refrigerator, stove and sink; are the focal points of the major work centers in a kitchen
a yellow tag that is displayed on an all newly purchased major appliances which shows an estimated, yearly energy usage for the product
areas of food that during cooking reach a higher temperature than surrounding areas due to receiving a greater concentration of energy
repair and maintenance insurance purchased to cover a product for a specific length of time
the time during which foods finish cooking by internal heat after being removed from the cooking appliance
a written promise by a manufacturer that a product will meet specified standards of performance
a cooking device which uses invisible waves of energy that cause water molecules to rub against each other and produce heat which cooks the foods
the repeated cycle in which energy in a microwave oven is emitted by the magnetron tube
single celled microorganisms that live in soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals
a commercial food preservation method that exposes food to gamma rays to increase shelf life and kill harmful microorganisms
Temperature danger zone
zone from 41F° to 135F° in which foods should not be stored or kept for long periods of time due to risk of spoilage and bacteria growth
Blue plate service
a type of meal service in which the plates are filled in the kitchen, carried to the dining room, and served
style of meal service in which a large table or buffet holds a variety of food items, the serving dishes and utensils, dinnerware, flatware, and napkins and from which guests serve themselves
a combination of English and formal service.; The main course of the meal is served at the table by the host and the remainder of the meal is served in individual portions from the kitchen.
the arrangement of the tableware that each diner will need for a meal; also called a place setting
a style of meal service in which the plates are served by the host and/or hostess and passed around the table until each guest has been served
a service style that allows diners to join others in a setting where large dishes of food are placed on a table for self-service
an arrangement with a restaurant to hold a table, or with a hotel to hold a room, for a guest on a given date at a given time
to cook by broiling, grilling, roasting, or baking; traditionally to cook meat on a rack or spit over hot coals
to spoon pan liquids over the surface of food during cooking to keep the food moist and add flavor
a flour and liquid mixture with a consistency ranging from a thin liquid to a stiff liquid depending on the proportion of dry to liquid ingredients
a long, slow combination cooking technique in which food is seared and then simmered in enough liquid to cover no more than 2/3 of the food
to turn the surface of a food brown by quickly cooking it in hot fat or placing it under a broiler
the chemical browning reaction that can occur when a sugar is heated; characteristic color and flavor develops
to combine solid fat with dry ingredients until lumps of the desired size remain; may be done using a pastry blender, two knives, or a fork
to coat a food by sprinkling it with or dipping it in a dry ingredient such as flour or breadcrumbs
to add ingredients carefully as not to lose air bubbles; the utensil is passed down through the mixture, across the bottom, and up the opposite side of the bowl, gently turning the mixture over
a mixing process in which dough is folded, pressed, and squeezed to strengthen the gluten strands and allow yeast dough to develop the proper texture
to soak foods in a liquid to improve texture or flavor. The liquid generally contains herbs, spices, and other flavoring ingredients, as well as oil, and an acid, such as wine, vinegar, or lemon juice to break down the connective tissue of meat
to cook without fat in an uncovered skillet without grease and pouring off excess fat as it accumulates
to heat a liquid to just below the boiling point; to dip food into boiling water or pour boiling water over the food
a moist cooking technique in which food is cooked slowly and steadily in a liquid just below the boiling point ( 185 degrees 200 degrees F)
to cook with vapor produced by a boiling liquid without allowing it to come into contact with the water
to cover with boiling water and let stand without additional heating until flavor and color is extracted as for tea
a dry cooking technique, foods cook quickly in a small amount of fat over high heat while stirring constantly; generally uses a wok, a large pan with sloping side
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