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Terms in this set (24)
-increases user satisfaction
What is being manipulated
What is being measured
Man to the machine
training employees to deal wth a machine, changing how the human deal with computers
Machine to the man
changing the console to benefit the person, hand held console, clear face, useable to the human
before World War 1, he created an attempt to increase the efficiency of humans in the workplace, which led to the creation of the field of industrial engineering, 'trial and error'
Frank and Lillian Gilberth
studied performance, fatigue, and design of workstations-took principles of Taylor but used it from the physiological perspective
(surgeon obtains an instrument when he calls for it from the nurse because the doctor doesn't have to take the time to look at the object and take it's eyes of the patient)
increased investing in driving behavior- study of accidents, social characteristics & more!
Fitts and Jones
(World War II) studied the most effective configuration of control knobs for use in developing aircraft cockpits
Use of tests for selecting proper people for jobs
Improved training procedures
(Fit machine to men!)
1st generation computers (1950)
were huge, very hot environment, took more than one person to control it
Second Generation Computers
smaller, lower electricity consumption, core memory, magnetic cores, 32,000 bits, punch cards
Three Mile Island Accident
nuclear plant, a significant accident, operator error played a significant role, they made changes in: upgrading and strengthening the plant design, enhancing emergency preparedness, requirements for plants to immediately notify NRC of observations
Bhopal India Explosion
3800 people dies instantly and more than 500,000 injured. Safety device designed to neutralize toxic discharge was turned off. Safety cooling system was empty. Workers ignored warning indicators and took no measures to alleviate the problem.
Safety procedure adherence, updated equipment, and management policies
they were 470 million, they only received $400 for each family
Petroleum Plant explosion
the blast was equivalent to tons of TNT. 23 employees were killed and 314 injured.
A safety valve stayed open when the indicator in the control room showed closed. A total of 747 willful and 21 serious violations.
created adequate maintenance and alarm system, the sufficent separation between the reactors and the control room for emergency shutdown
Behavioral ways to measure workload
are there enough resources to go around to perform the tasks
Psychophysiological ways of measuring workload
heart rate, skin response, brain activation, increased heart rate, pupil dilation, etc.
Subjective measures workloads
rating scales, structured questionnaires, open-ended questionnaires, structured/unstructured interviews
measures everything within a work force
(measures 6 different things)
-temporal demand (hurried or rushed the task was)
Pros of NASA TLX
calibration of individual responses prior to the task, has weighing scales, calibration of individual responses prior to the task
Cons of NASA TLX
poor inter-rater reliability, dependence on the exercise and experience, their ability to make comparative judgements
MRQ had more components,
DR. Shaw's Test
-vigilance test, sustain attention task, looking for a stimuli, waiting to see a task
-showed that the MRQ is more effective than a NASA TLX, reflecting higher workload in the context of workload in the context of multitasking than in a single-task condition.
(Driven to Distraction) Tamagachi Story
two individuals, they crashed into cyclists, and killed one, maybe if the Tamagachi had a small interface, had no mute button
he accessed the differential demands placed on drivers by environmental variables has been the focus of a recent series of investigations. Impact traffic density on mental workload
-used visual and auditory sensory detection task were developed
-NASA TLX did not disguise between driving task difficulty
-P300 measured for target stimuli
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