42 terms

Chapter 2: Data in Science

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Terms in this set (...)

mass
a measure of the amount of matter in an object
volume
a measure of the size of an object or region in three-dimensional space
density
the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance.
temperature
a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an-object
model
a pattern, plan, representation, o description design to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept
theory
a system of ideas that explains many related observations and is supported by a large amount of scientific investigation is called a(n) ______________
law
a descriptive statement or equation that reliably predicts events under certain conditions is called a(n) _________
independent
a factor that is deliberately changed in an experiment is called a(n)________________ variable.
dependent
the factor that can change as a result of manipulation and is measured is called a(n) ___________ variable.
axis
one of two or more reference lines in that mark the borders of a graph
mean
the number obtained by adding up the data for a given characteristic and dividing this sum by the number of individuals
median
the value of the middle item when data are arranged in order by size.
mode
the most frequently occurring value in a data set
slope
a measure of the slant line; the ratio of rise over run
What is a tool?
anything that helps you do a task
What are tools used for?
to take accurate measurements
to collect data
to evaluate and analyze data
kilogram
the basic SI unit of mass
liter
a unit used to express liquid volume
meter
the basic SI unit of length
cubic meter
a unit used to express the volume of larger solid objects
liters
A cubic meter is equal to 1,000 ____________
How do you calculate density?
D=m/v
conceptual model
used to explain why the universe seems to be expanding
physical model
used to help understand how a real shuttle blasts off into space
mathematical model
used to predict the weather
conceptual model
What type of model tries to put many ideas together to explain or summarize something?
How are models used by scientist
models can make a molecule easier to visualize
models can be used to summarize new info.
models are used to communicate difficult info.
What does law tell you, and what does a law not tell you?
law tells you what happens, not why or how it happens.
Graphs make it easy to do what 2 things?
identify trends and make predictions
range
found by subtracting the smallest value of a variable from the largest value of the same variable
scale
is the size used for each box or grid mark on a graph
line of best fit
shows how data differ from the pattern; a smooth line drawn to include some but not all of the data points
data point
plotted by putting a dot on the graph for a pair of data in the table
trend
the pattern of data on a graph
nonlinear graph
a graph in which the relationship between variables cannot be shown with a straight line
linear graph
a graph in which the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable can be shown
inverse
A relationship in which one variable increases while the other variable decreases.
Why is mathematics often called the "language of science"?
because it lets scientists share their findings in a language everyone understands
What is true of data that is accepted or supported by other scientist?
It is reproducible
What does the rise represent?
a vertical change (y)
What does the run represent?
a horizontal change (x)
How is the slope of a straight line calculated?
rise over run