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growth to a global or worldwide scale

European Union

an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members


A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Formed in 2001, a geopolitical group composed of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan that focuses on common security threats and works to enhance economic cooperation and cultural exchange in Central Asia.

World Trade Organization

an international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade

Bharatiya Janata Party

Late 1980s, Rival to Indian National Congress. Wanted to return to Hindu law. Destroyed a mosque in Ayodha

Asif Ali Zardari

current President of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto's widower

Robert Mugabe

leader of an African nationalist group, fought with Nkomo over Zimbabwe, won and became the elected president, called for a one-party system to promote national unity and tolerated little opposition

Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf

born October 29, 1938) is the current president of Liberia, Africa's first elected female head of state and Liberia's first elected female president.

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

current president of Iran (pursuing the development of nuclear weapons) and involved in the crackdown on democratic moves in his country among other atrocious acts

Kim Jong-Il

son of Kim Il Sung, became ruler of North Korea after his father's death. He developed nuclear weapons.


A group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996


An extremist Shiite Muslim group that has close links with Iran, created after the Iranian revolution of 1979 and active esp. in Lebanon.


a militant Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel and uses terrorism as a weapon.


Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).


the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature

Usama bin Laden

Saudi-born Muslim extremist who founded the al-Qaeda organization that was responsible for several terrorist attacks, including those on the world trade center and the pentagon in 2001


Islamic terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden. They are responsible for numerous terrorist attacks, including the destruction of the World Trade Center buildings in New York City.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

A 1948 statement in which the United Nations declared that all human beings have rights to life, liberty, and security.

nongovernmental organizations

International organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social, economic, and environmental issues.

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

international convention adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as an international bill of rights for women, it came into force on 3 September 1981.

cultural imperialism

Domination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy or by economic or technological superiority.

global pop culture

Popular cultural practices and institutions that have been adopted internationally, such as music, the INternet, television, food, and fashion.

global elite culture

At the begining of the twenty-first century, the attitudes and outlook of well-educated, propserous, Western-oriented people around the world, largely expressed in European languages, especially English.

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