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Chapter 33: New Challenges in a New Millennium

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globalization
growth to a global or worldwide scale
European Union
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
NAFTA
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Formed in 2001, a geopolitical group composed of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan that focuses on common security threats and works to enhance economic cooperation and cultural exchange in Central Asia.
World Trade Organization
an international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade
Bharatiya Janata Party
Late 1980s, Rival to Indian National Congress. Wanted to return to Hindu law. Destroyed a mosque in Ayodha
Asif Ali Zardari
current President of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto's widower
Robert Mugabe
leader of an African nationalist group, fought with Nkomo over Zimbabwe, won and became the elected president, called for a one-party system to promote national unity and tolerated little opposition
Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf
born October 29, 1938) is the current president of Liberia, Africa's first elected female head of state and Liberia's first elected female president.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
current president of Iran (pursuing the development of nuclear weapons) and involved in the crackdown on democratic moves in his country among other atrocious acts
Kim Jong-Il
son of Kim Il Sung, became ruler of North Korea after his father's death. He developed nuclear weapons.
Taliban
A group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996
Hezbolla
An extremist Shiite Muslim group that has close links with Iran, created after the Iranian revolution of 1979 and active esp. in Lebanon.
Hamas
a militant Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel and uses terrorism as a weapon.
fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
terrorism
the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature
Usama bin Laden
Saudi-born Muslim extremist who founded the al-Qaeda organization that was responsible for several terrorist attacks, including those on the world trade center and the pentagon in 2001
Al-Qaeda
Islamic terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden. They are responsible for numerous terrorist attacks, including the destruction of the World Trade Center buildings in New York City.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
A 1948 statement in which the United Nations declared that all human beings have rights to life, liberty, and security.
nongovernmental organizations
International organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social, economic, and environmental issues.
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
international convention adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as an international bill of rights for women, it came into force on 3 September 1981.
cultural imperialism
Domination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy or by economic or technological superiority.
global pop culture
Popular cultural practices and institutions that have been adopted internationally, such as music, the INternet, television, food, and fashion.
global elite culture
At the begining of the twenty-first century, the attitudes and outlook of well-educated, propserous, Western-oriented people around the world, largely expressed in European languages, especially English.