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The NASA executive who made the final decision to launch the space shuttle Challenger was shielded from information and dissenting views that might have led to a delay of the tragic launch. This best illustrates the dangers of


Groupthink can be prevented by a leader who

invites outside experts to critique a group's developing plans.

Cultural diversity best illustrates our

adaptive capacities.

By inventing customs and passing them on to their peers and offspring, chimpanzees exhibit the rudiments of


The rules of a culture for accepted and expected behavior are


Norms are best described as

rules for socially acceptable behavior.

Personal space refers to

the distance we like to maintain between ourselves and other people.

Studies indicate that

North Americans prefer more personal space than do Latin Americans.

In which of the following countries do people generally prefer to maintain the largest personal space?


Since 1960, most Western cultures have changed with remarkable speed. The LEAST likely explanation for these variations involves changes in

genetic predispositions.

Since 1960, Americans have experienced a(n)

increase in the incidence of depression and an increase in work hours.

An unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members is called


Overgeneralized beliefs about a group of people that often underlie prejudicial emotions are called


The three components of prejudice are

beliefs, emotions, and predispositions to action

Which of the following describes a stereotype?

Robin is convinced that university professors are usually impractical and forgetful.

Prejudice is a(n) ________; discrimination is a(n) ________.

attitude; behavior

In several U.S. states where Black motorists are a minority of the drivers and speeders on interstate highways, they have been the majority of those stopped and searched by police. This best illustrates

overt prejudice.

People may unconsciously harbor negative racial associations. This best illustrate the subtle nature of

implicit attitudes.

Explicit attitudes are typically ________, whereas implicit attitudes are often ________.

conscious; unconscious

When White university women withheld criticism of a flawed essay written by a Black fellow student, they demonstrated


If poverty causes high rates of crime, the high crime rates can be used to justify discrimination against those who live in poverty. This best illustrates

the blame-the-victim dynamic.

Facing the threat of death at the hands of terrorists is likely to heighten


Following 9/11, some outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab-Americans. This venting of hostility can best be explained in terms of

scapegoat theory.

The longer Chinese people have resided in a Western country, the less they exhibit

the other-race effect.

Mr. Ignatenko thinks that most unemployed people are to blame for their own misfortune. His belief best illustrates a potential consequence of

the just-world phenomenon.

The just-world phenomenon often leads people to

believe that victims of misfortune deserve to suffer.

Which of the following persons is most clearly acting aggressively?

a child who tries to hit another child with a rock

Research on the biology of aggression has clearly demonstrated that

animals can be bred for aggressiveness.

When a mild-mannered woman had an electrode implanted in her amygdala, she

developed more aggressive tendencies.

Studies have revealed diminished activity in the ________ of violent criminals.

frontal lobes

Handling and describing a gun has been found to increase ________ in research participants' saliva.


After Ravi lost the student election for president of his high school class, he spread false rumors intended to spoil the newly chosen president's reputation. Ravi's behavior is best explained in terms of the

frustration-aggression principle.

Organisms often respond to ________ with a fight-or-flight reaction.


Ostracism has been observed to intensify


Aggression-replacement programs are most likely to advise parents to avoid

modeling violence.

Violent pornographic movies often perpetuate the myth that

many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters.

People heavily exposed to violent pornography are likely to engage in sexually aggressive behaviors that reflect a misleading

social script.

Although the effect dissipates within an hour or so, one violent TV program is most likely to ________ in its viewer.

prime aggressive thoughts

Joel's violent behavior is influenced by his unrealistic social scripts, his repeated experience of ostracism, and his persistent abuse of alcohol. An integrated understanding of Joel's behavior within the framework of multiple levels of analysis is most clearly provided by

a biopsychosocial approach.

On average, Internet-formed friendships and romantic relationships are ________ likely than relationships formed in person to last beyond two years. When conversing online with someone for 20 minutes, participants in one study felt ________ attraction toward that person than they did for someone they talked with face to face.

more; more

People tend to prefer a(n) ________ image of themselves, while their friends prefer a(n) ________ version of them.

mirror; actual

After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to feel affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy's reaction best illustrates

the mere exposure effect.

Svetlana, a 16-year-old high school senior, is beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ________ than less attractive high school girls.

be perceived as more socially skilled

People's physical attractiveness is unrelated to their


Women are attracted to healthy-looking men, but especially to those who seem to be


Research on physical attractiveness indicates that

babies prefer attractive over unattractive faces.

People with more symmetrical faces are perceived as more


Casandra, who is attractive and likable, has just telephoned Mike and asked him for a date. According to the two-factor theory of emotion, Mike is likely to experience the most intense romantic feelings for Casandra during their telephone conversation if he has just

completed a series of aerobic exercises.

While driving his girlfriend to work, Nate narrowly avoided a collision with another vehicle. Moments later, he experienced an unusually warm glow of affection for his girlfriend. His romantic reaction is best explained in terms of

the two-factor theory of emotion.

Ellie is unusually attractive and intelligent, and she works hard to please her husband. He displays little affection for her, however, and spends most of the family's resources on his own interests. Ellie's relationship with her husband is best characterized as


Altruism is best described as

behaving unselfishly to enhance the welfare of others.

People are less likely to give aid if an emergency occurs in the presence of many observers. This is known as

the bystander effect.

Employees who receive a windfall bonus are later happier if they have done something for other people with it. This suggests that altruism is

intrinsically rewarding.

An expectation that people will help those who depend on them is known as the

social-responsibility norm.

Melissa regularly donates blood to an international blood bank simply because she believes she ought to help anyone with a medical need for a blood transfusion. Melissa's altruism best illustrates the impact of

the social-responsibility norm.

To a social psychologist, a perceived incompatibility of goals indicates


A social trap is a situation in which

the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm.

Simple "non-zero-sum games" have been used in laboratory settings to study

social traps.

Despite government warnings of a severe shortage of heating fuels, most citizens continue to turn up their home thermostats in the belief that their personal fuel consumption will have little effect on the country's total fuel reserves. This reaction best illustrates the dynamics of

a social trap.

An increase in ________ has been followed by more positive attitudes between South African Whites and Blacks.

interracial contact

Initially prejudiced heterosexuals are likely to develop more accepting attitudes toward homosexuals following the experience of

face-to-face contact.

In one experiment, White Americans read a newspaper article about a foreign terrorist threat against all Americans. They subsequently expressed

reduced prejudice against African-Americans.

GRIT attempts to reduce conflict through


Ingroup bias best illustrates the impact of our ________ on prejudice.

social identities

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