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Cordell Hull

FDR's secretary of state, who promised reciprocal trade agreeements, especially with Latin America

Benito Mussolini

The lesser partner of the Rome-Berlin Axis who invaded Ethiopia and joined the war against France and Britain

Francisco Franco

Fascist rebel against the Spanish Loyalist government

Wendell Willkie

Dynamic dark horse Rebpublican presidential nominee who attacked FDR only on domestic policy

Joseph Stalin

Russian dictator who first helped Hitler destroy Poland before becoming a victim of Nazi aggression in 1941

Neutrality Acts

A series of laws enacted by Congress in the mid-1930s that attempted to prevent any American involvement in future overseas wars

America First

Leading isolationist group advocating that America focus on continental defense and non-involvement with the European war

Atlantic Charter

U.S.-British agreement of August 1941, with the loss of over a hundred men

Adolf Hitler

Fanatical Fascist leader of Germany whose aggressions forced the United States to abandon its neutrality

Gerald Nye

Instigator of 1934 Senate hearings that castigated World War I munitions manufacturers as "merchants of death"

Charles A. Lindbergh

Leader of "America First" organization and chief spokesman for U.S. isolationism

Winston Churchill

Courageous prime minister who led Britain's lonely resistance to Hitler

Good Neighbor Policy

FDR's repudiation of Theodore Roosevelt's corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, stating his intention to work cooperatively with Latin American nations


Term for the British-French policy of attempting to prevent war by granting German demands


Controversial 1941 law that made America the "arsenal of democracy" by providing supposedly temporary military material assistance to Britain

Reuben James

U.S. destroyer sunk by German submarines off the coast of Iceland in October 1941, with the loss of over a hundred men

Henry J. Kaiser

Leading American industrialist and shipbuilder during World War II

Douglas MacArthur

Commander of the U.S. Army in the pacific during World War II, who fulfilled his promise to return to the Philipines

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Commander of the Allied military assault against Hitler in North Africa and France

Albert Einstein

German-born physicist who helped persuade Roosevelt to develop the atomic bomb

Chiang Kai-shek

U.S. ally who resisted Japanese advances in China during World War II

Chester W. Nimitz

Commander of the U.S. naval forces in the Pacific and brilliant strategist of the "island hopping" campaign

Thomas Dewey

Republican presidential nominee in 1944 who failed in his effort to deny FDR a fourth term


Japanese emperor who was allowed to stay on his throne, despite unconditional surrender policy

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