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Arts and Humanities
Problem of God Exam One
Terms in this set (43)
What is religion?
A system of beliefs followed by a group of people
What are the traits of religion?
a system of beliefs, notion of the supernatural, notion of afterlife
What is metaphysics?
that which comes after hard sciences
foramt used by Aquinas for Summa theologiae
work written by Aquinas; contains Five Ways
the study of being (used by Avicenna and Anselm)
What study did Avicenna and Anselm used?
work written by Anselm
What is philosophy of religion (PR)?
a philosophical study of religious phenomena and religious truth claims, without being restricted to any particular religion
means God is entirely self-sufficient, independent from any external restrictions, and uncaused
means that God is ontologically different from the world and radically beyond our experience
means that God is indwelling the universe
the most common model of God; contends that God exists and this God is transcendent, eternal, immutable, simple, self-sufficient, and perfectly good; God is above the world
affirms everything that theism says about God; adds that the God is one; God cannot have equals, cannot be contingent; God has aseity and is omniscient, omnipresent, and omnipotent
acknowledges many gods and goddesses; many divine beings with one being the greatest god
a particular view of God in which God left the world to function on its own and created the laws of material world for the world to perform as it is supposed to
perceives God as identical with the world; God is not transcendent and immanent
a view of God that is a variation of pantheism which says that God is the world and also beyond the world
despise organized religions, institutions, and establishments; considered "spiritual"
we don't know whether God is or what God is; suspends judgement due to the lack of evidence one way or another
emphatically denies God's existence
a priori argument
a argument that rests on principles which can be known independently of our experience of the world
a posteriori argument
depends on a principle or premise that can be known only by means of our experience of the world
Which of Aquinas' Five Ways are cosmological?
Which philosophers lived in the 12th century?
Maimonides and Anselm
Step One of Anselm's Ontological Argument
states that "God is something than which nothing greater can be thought"
Step Two of Anselm's Ontological Argument
states that if a God-denier has a concept of God, it is i possible to think of someone who exists not only in their mind but outside of their mind. This being would be greater than the being that exists only in the mind.
Step Three of Anselm's Ontological Argument
states that if something can be conceived not to exist, then it would be possible to conceive something greater which does exist. God cannot be non-existent because otherwise God would not be the Absolute eternal being.
What did Gaunilo argue?
just because we can think of something, that does not necessarily mean that the something exists (perfect island)
First Point of Anselm's Response
an ontological argument works only for God
Second Point of Anselm's Response
An ideal island can be and is non-existent, and is not something that has to has exist. Meanwhile, God has to necessarily exist.
Third Point of Anselm's Response
infinite perfections cannot be attributed to contingent, finite things; to think of God as "something than which nothing greater can be thought" is conceivable unlike thinking of a perfect island
Aquinas' First Way
argument from motion; whatever is moved must be moved by something, so there must be a first mover who is God
Aquinas' Second Way
argument from causation; effects come from causes, and there has to be a first cause which is God
Aquinas' Third Way
argument from contingency; because everything is contingent, there has to be something that is necessary and caused all contingent things which is God
Aquinas' Fourth Way
argument from degrees of perfection; because there is a hierarchy of perfection, there has to be a standard of perfection which is God
Aquinas' Fifth Way
the teleological argument; everything has a purpose so there must be a designer who created these purposes who is God
principle of sufficient reason
a philosophical principle which contends that everything must have a reason or a cause
a preeminent medieval Jewish philosopher, who died in 1204
Maimondes' Argument Three
a two fold observation of facts that 1) things exist and that 2) the existing things are mutable; postulates the logical need for something which always and necessarily exists and is immutable; establishes that a necessary being has to be self-sufficient, uncaused, and simple
Maimondes' Argument Four
argues that a necessary being has to be actual and immaterial
What does Avicenna argue?
there must be some Necessary Existent which is such that its essence is identical with its existence and which is also the necessitating cause of all existence
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