Most Criminal cases are processed through the entire formal justice system


which justice perspective holds that the proper role of the justice system is to prevent crime through the judicious use of criminal sanctions, and demands an efficient system that hands out tough sanctions to those who violate the law

crime control

the term criminal justice system was first used after the findings of ____ to reflect a view that justice agencies could be connected in an intricate yet often unobserved network of decision-making processes

American Bar Foundation Project

Which of the following crimes would be placed in the top layer (layer 1) of the criminal justice wedding cake?

A noted celebrity is arrested for shooting her bodyguard

the equal justice perspective advocated judges consider extra-legal factors in sentencing


Which of the following is false regarding Herbert Packers notion of the criminal justice process as an assembly-line?

Most people who commit crime are punished

It was in 1919 with the creation of the Chicago Crime Commission, that the work of the criminal justice system began to be recognized.


If one of your fellow students suggested that crime is a recent social problem, you would respond by saying

Crime and violence have been common since the nation was first formed and are not recent social problems.

Offenders at level___ of the wedding cake model of criminal justice have typically committed a serious offense and will receive a prison term, however will not garner much media attention


Between 1976 and 1999, 566 were educated in the US and 82 individuals awaiting execution were exonerated. This is a ratio of 1 individual freed for every 7 individual executed. Such serious errors in the criminal justice system are of concern to advocated of the perspective

Due process

African Americans make up about 12 percent of the general population, yet account for approximately __ percent of violent crime arrests


Which of the following crimes is NOT included in the Uniform Crime Report's list of Part 1 or Index Crimes

Simple Assault

Which of the following is FALSE about the validity of self- report data?

Serious chronic offenders usually cooperate

Which of the following variables is NOT positively coorelated with a higher rate of crime in a population?

A greater proportion of people in prison

The UCR indicated that police clear slightly more than __ percent of all reported part 1 crimes each year


A spree killer:

spreads their murderous outbursts over a few days or weeks

Which of the following is considered the most widely cited source of criminal statistics

Uniform Crime Report

In which season do the greatest numbers of reported crimes occur?


Which type of study provides the best measure of unreported crimes?

self-report studies

One of the most important sources of self-report data is the __ study, conducted anually using approximately 2,500 high school seniors

Monitoring the future

A subculture occurs in disorganized neighborhoods marked by apathy, cynicism, helplessness, and distrust which is passed from one generation to the next creating a permanent underclass. This subculture is called:

the culture of poverty

Which of the following is NOT a criticism of specific deterrence?

The crime rate has dropped dramatically during the past decade while the prison population has grown, indicating at least some relationship between crime rated and incarceration rates

Which of the following was NOT one of the models of adaptation that Robert Merton produced as part of his explanation of how anomie can lead to crime?


According to lifestyle theories, who is LEAST likely to be a victim of crime?

someone who is married and stays home at night

80 percent of serious reported crimes do not result in an arrest


Which theory is interested in the question of the link between the media and violence?

Behavioral theory

Which of the following is NOT one of the three factors linked to predatory crime rates in routine activities theory?

extent of relative social deprivation

The use of illegal means to achieve success in the absence of legitimate means is an example of __ in Merton's theory of anomie.


__ theory believes that law violators may have suffered damage to their personalities early in their development that renders them powerless to control their impulses.


According to Sampson and Laub, what are the two most critical turning points in a criminal career?

marriage and employment

The defense of mistake ultimately rests on proving:

Lack of intent

Insanity, intoxication, and age are examples of:

legal defenses used to negate the required proof of mens rea

The term actus reus refers to the:

guilty act

Under common law, there was a conclusive presumption of incapacity for a child under the age of:


Which of the following is NOT a type of excuse defense?


Laws created and retroactively enforced are called ex post facto laws.


The concept of due process of laws has its roots in both the 4th and 5th amendment


Which of the following is the difference between criminal and tort laws?

The entity that receives monetary compensation

Floridas stand your ground law authorizes citizens to use __ when they reasonably believe that their homes or vehicles have been illegally invaded.

Deadly force

The __ amendment limits the admissibility of confessions that have been obtained unfairly


The gunshot location system was conceived by a US geological survey seismologist


There are more than 2 million employees involved in private policing


One criticism of private policing is that it could eventually replace government


Under its reformulated priorities, the FBIs primary objective is to protect the:

US against terrorist attacks

How did police reformer August Vollmer contribute to the police professionalism?

Instituting university training for young officers

Immigration and Customs enforcement is part of the department of homeland security


The end of the Vietnam War significantly reduced tension between students and police, as well as between minorities and the police.


What federal agency is responsible for the transporting of federal prisioners

US Marshals

The defining event that helped shape police reforms in the 1990's was the:

Beating of Rodney King

The __ was created in 1326 under the watch system of policing to assist the shire reeve in controlling the country?

Justice of the Peace

The detective bureau is considered the backbone of policing


Which of the following police operations best exemplifies community oriented policing

the hiring of bilingual officers to patrol ethnic neighborhoods

Which of the following is NOT a program or policy to try to improve patrol effectiveness.

decrease the number of arrests

Community-oriented policing links police effectiveness to:

productive interaction with the community being served

Displacement is when criminals move from an area targeted for increased police presence to another that is less well protected by police


The goal of the Kansas City Patrol Study was to evaluate:

The effectiveness of different patrol models

Community-oriented policing and problem-oriented policing are co-dependent.


Conducting an interview with a family member of the victim who was present at the crime scene would fall into the __ investigative stage.

Specific Focus

Most police agencies are organized in a(n) __ manner


The promotion system currently used in police department often discourages the:

Transferring of experienced officers to other departments

What US Supreme Court decision set forth the "reasonable officer" standard for police use of deadly force.

Graham v. Connor

Which of the following factors is most likely to foster individual discretion on the part of officers within a department?

Large department size

Which is NOT one of the six core beliefs at the heart of the police culture?

Patrol work gives officers the chance to be heroes in the eyes of the public

An officer who approaches a group of teenagers drinking beer, checks everyones ID, and arrests everyone who is underage would typify which style of policing?

Law Enforcer

What US Supreme court case deemed the use of deadly force against an unarmed and nondangerous fleeing felon an illegal seizure under the 4th amendment?

Tennessee v. Garner

Which of the following is FALSE regarding suspect behavior and characteristics

Suspects who offer verbal disrespect are as likely as suspects who physically resist to be met with police physical force

Approximately __ percent of police department now have a college requirement


Which police style is associated with the preference to ignore issues of concern or treat them informally, unless the social or political order is being jeopardized?


Which of the following is TRUE regarding police use of force?

All of the statements are true regarding police use of force

The overload hypothesis suggests that community crime rates may shape officer discretion. This is an example of a(n)__ factor


___ would exceed the legal bounds of a warantless search incident to lawful arrest

Search of the room in which the subject was seized

The two components of the stop-and-risk are respectively justified by:

The need for crime prevention and detection, and the need to protect the officer

Which of the following recordings would be allowed in a federal court law in made without a warrent?

A wiretap in which one party consented, but the other was unaware of the tap

If police executing a search warrant find contraband or other criminal evidence not specified in the original search warrant out in the open:

They may lawfully seize the items under the plain sight exception

The exclusionary rule has also been extended to include derivate, or secondary evidence, also called:`

Fruit of the poisonous tree

In the 1980s, the US Supreme court began to limit the scope of the exclusionary rule


When the Supreme Court hears cases pertaining to search and seizures, they draw mainly on the __ amendment.


The ___ amendment protects an individuals right to freedom from self-incrimination?


Under the Katz doctrine, in which of the following locations may a conversation be taped without a warrant?

Public park

An individual cannot be arrested for a traffic violation according to the US Supreme Court


Which of the following would be handled by a US district court?

Civil rights abuse

In 1927, __ was the first state to establish an administrative office for the courts.

North Dakota

Alternative dispute resolution includes, most commonly, arbitration and mediation.


When a right is granted in a case by the Supreme Court it is usually referred to as a(n):

Landmark decision

Which of the following technologies has been used for judicial conferences and scheduling meetings?

Closed Circuit Court

Federal appellate judges are required to travel because there are only 13 US court of appeals in the US


There are approximately __ drug courts in operation throughout the US.


Which of the following cases would be eligible to be heard in US district court?

All of these

Generally, state appellate decisions are based on court transcript, however in some instances the felony court will grant a new trial, which is referred to as:

The trial de novo process

To be a judge, a candidate typically cannot be over the age of seventy.


Deciding to deal with the accused without going through the full criminal process is known as:

Pre-trial diversion

The view that prosecuting minor crimes would represent a waste of time is an example of a ___ factor that influences prosecutorial discretion.


"Strength of evidence" is considered a ___ factor linked to prosecutorial decision making.


Which of the following systems would most likely be used in rural areas due to their typically small caseloads?

assigned counsel

Those with private counsel were more likely to be incarcerated.


Research points to the conclusion that prosecutorial discretion is used to"

screen out the weakest cases

Which of the following is not a landmark case dealing with defendants' right to counsel?

Terry v. Ohio

Which statement best describes the state of public defense services prior to the Supreme Court ruling in Gideon v. Wainwright?

Public defense servies were provided mainly by local private attorenys appointed and paid for by the court or by the court or by limited public defendant programs.

Politics has very little impact on the decision making in a prosecutors' office.


Anticipatory prosecution has been used in cases of environmental crime.


Richmond Newspapers Inc. v. Virginia established that criminal trials must remain open to:

The press

In a criminal case, a preponderance of the evidence is sometimes enough to convict.


Which input it NOT legally required during the plea bargaining process?


Which type of court procedure is sometimes called a probable cause hearing?

the preliminary hearing

Roughly __ percent of criminal defendants plead guilty before trial.


The state can never order a defendant to take medication when he/she is ruled incompetent to stand trial.


What happens once a plea of not guilty is recorded?

a trial date is set

Virtually all large jurisdictions have pretrial release program.


When a defendant enters a guilty plea, he/she must admit to all the elements of the crime in question.


Release on recognizance requires a money deposit as in the bail system.


Using mandatory life sentences so criminals cannot hurt other citizens is the core goal of:


Which of the following punishment models relies on the prediction of future behavior?

Incapacitation, rehabilitation and specific detterence all rely on the prediction of future behavior.

Which of the following is FALSE regarding sentencing?

Older people are punished more harshly than younger people

Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of sentencing guidelines?

to increase judicial discretion

Some of the institutions used as penitentiaries developed soon after the Revolutionary War are still in use today.


Which state declared a moratorium on capital punishment in 2003 and commuted the death sentences of 163 men and four women ?


Sentencing guidelines are used to control structured sentencing.


Who has the final say in the duration of the offenders prison stay in determinate sentencing?

The judge

Which goal of sentencing involves an attempt to convince the criminal through punishment that future crime would not be in their own best interests

Specific detterance

Sentencing guidelines compute sentencing scores based on the factors of offense seriousness and:

offenders prior criminal record

When did forfeiture begin as a sanction?

middle ages

Which of the following is the most punitive alternative of the punishment ladder?

residential community center

Evaluation of risk assessment instruments demonstrate that they can be highly valid and effective when used properly.


What happens when probation is revoked?

the probation contract is terminated and the original sentence is imposed.

When did the federal government establish a probation system for US district courts?


What did the courts rule in Tate v Short?

Incriminating a person who is financially unable to pay a fine discriminates against the poor

Courts can impose any conditions on probation, even is they are unreasonable.


Community corrections have traditionally emphasized:


During intake an officer may be looking to settle the cause without the necessity of a court hearing.


Which of the following was NOT a landmark supreme court case that dealt with the legal rights of probation?

United States v. Weeks

Every state had legislation that includes reference to the use of victim-offender mediation.


The American Civil Liberties Union is fighting against internet monitoring of offenders because it invades their right to privacy.


Many scholars argue that probation will continue to be the sentence of choice in both felony and misdemeanor cases because it:

holds the promise of great financial savings

Electric monitoring devices are primarily used in conjuction with:

House arrest

What modern concept can be traced to the 19th century volunteer efforts of John Augustus?


What do judges generally rely on when determining financial penalties and fines?

the seriousness of the offense

What was the underlying philosophy behind the rehabilitation movement in the 1960s?

medical model

What was the key to discipline the Auburn system?


The "modern" american correctional system had its origin in?


Which of the following factors contributes to a decrease in prison populations?

Successful community release programs

During a period when the crime rate had been in decline (1995-2008), the incarceration rate has...

Increase 30 percent

Le Stinche prison was unique in its time for its replacement or corporal punishment with:


The prisoners rights movement between 1960-1980 became an impetus for change in the nations correction system.


Which of the following was forbidden by the end of the 17th century in Pennsylvania Criminal Code?


Men are approx. __ times more likely than women to be incarcerated at least once in their lifetime.


Which of the following is NOT a criticism of private prisons?

they cost more than state run-facilities

Sing Sing, Joliet, and "the rock" are examples of:

maximum security

Zebulon brockway popularized the use of ___while serving as warden at Elmira Reformatory


Faith-based groups are part of the movement against private prisons.


See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording