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100 terms

Ch 13-16

STUDY
PLAY
The way we each affect the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of others and are, in turn, affected by others is the study of
social psychology
The approximate number of people that each of us knows reasonably well is
150
After a particularly difficult psychology exam, you and your friends confide in one another about the test, comparing your answers and reactions to the test. This is known as Leon Festinger's
social comparison theory
Coworkers in one office building noticed a foul odor outside and suspected it might be a terrorist plot using a biochemical weapon. Soon, a number of reporters covered the story and reports of foul odors were popping up everywhere. Despite the mayor and the sewer department stating that a line in the sewer had burst, workers were convinced of the possible attack. This phenomenon is better explained by
mass hysteria
When Jacob's girlfriend and her friends stopped by his house during a basketball game with his friends, Jacob's performance increased slightly due to what Zajonc calls
social facilitation
As he was just learning how to play tennis, Dave did worse when in the presence of others in a phenomenon known as
social disruption
A(n)____is a claim about the cause of a person's behavior.
attribution
A(n)____ attribution is made when we blame an individual's behavior on the situation; a(n) _____ attribution is made when we blame the individual's behavior to his or her personality or other personal characteristics.
external; dispositional
The tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group influence is called
conformity
Devoid of any retribution, given the size of the stadium, thousands of fans swarmed the field, climbing on the goal posts, yelling, screaming, and taking their clothes off. This behavior of normally mild-mannered citizens is known as
deindividuation
The emphasis on group unanimity expense of critical thinking is called
groupthink
The best way to avoid groupthink is to encourage_____ within an organization.
active dissent
The tendency of a group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual group members is known as
group polarization
Which of the following people would be most likely to come to the aid of another
Someone who read about bystander intervention research
Behavior that benefits others is often referred to as
prosocial behavior
This is the reduction in feelings of personal responsibility in the presence of others.
Diffusion of responsibility
When an individual, who is part of a larger group, chooses to put forth less effort than other group members, ____ occurs.
social loafing
Helping others for unselfish reasons is called
altruism
Learning about psychological research can change real-world behavior for the better. This is known as
the enlightenment effect
The intent to harm another, either physically or psychologically, is referred to as
aggression
A(n)_____ is a conclusion regarding factual evidence, while a(n) ______ is a belief that includes an emotional component.
belief; attitude
When an individual's attitudes do not match up with his/her behaviors, _____ is likely to occur.
cognitive dissonance
______ theory proposes that we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviors.
self-perception
Drawing conclusions about a person, group of people, or situation prior to evaluating the evidence is known as
prejudice
A belief about the characteristics of members of a group that are applied generally to most members of the group is known as a(n)
stereotype
According to the authors, _____ is one of the most influential personality theorists in all of psychology.
Sigmund Freud
The Freudian idea of "psychic determinism" implies that
any psychological event has an underlying cause
Miranda is a psychoanalytic theorist who uses this perspective to guide her therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders. As a result, she is most likely to improve her understanding of her client's
symbolic dream imagery
Which theory of personality is most concerned with understanding people's unconscious motivations?
Psychoanalytic
Some authors relate Freud's personality structure to an iceberg, saying that the ______ is completely submerged in our unconscious.
id
The id is motivated by the desire for
immediate gratification
According to Freud, the ego is the
decision maker
The _____ seeks to find a resolution between the competing demands of the _____.
ego; id and superego
The______ could be described as similar to a judgmental parent looking down on the_____
superego; ego
According to Freud, defense mechanisms are unconscious attempts to reduce our feelings of
anxiety
Shyteria is a toll-booth operator. At least once every hour she typically has an encounter with a motorist who berates and belittles her because they are upset about traffic, they don't have enough change, or they are just unhappy that day. As a result, when she gets home Shyteria often yells at her roommates and slams cabinet doors closed when she cant find what she wants. She is displaying classic symptoms of
displacement
Which order is correct for Freud's psychosexual stages of development?
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Compared to Freud himself, the neo-Freudians placed more importance on ____ and less on_____
social drives; sexuality
Adler suggested that the principal motive in human personality is
striving for superiority
Jung's theory suggests that the _____ is a collection of latent memories from people's ancestral past.
collective unconscious
The extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside of their control refers to
locus of control
What was the third, and some would say final, major force in the field of personality psychology?
Humanism
A major difference between the humanists and both the behaviorists and psychodynamic theorists is the humanist's focus on
free will
According to Rogers, expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate and inappropriate behaviors are called
conditions of worth
The role of one's thinking in personality development was emphasized by
social learning theorists
According to the humanists, a key motive in human personality development was
self-actualization
According to Maslow, a self-actualized person is someone who is
creative and self-confident
A statistical technique that analyzes the correlations among responses on personality inventories and other measures is called
factor analysis
Which of the following is not one of the dimensions of the Big Five?
Sociablness
Research suggests that the Big Five personality traits are
fairly consistent across many cultures
The primary purpose of the DSM-IV-TR is to
help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders
When an individual is institutionalized against his will because he poses a danger to himself or others, and he has committed no crime, this is called ______ commitment.
civil
Which of the following is a disorder that takes the form of a bodily ailment that has no physical cause?
Somatoform
Leo worries all of the time. He worries about his money, his children, and his dog. His muscles are always tense and sore, he has trouble sleeping, and is constantly physically tense. Leo's symptoms sound most like
generalized anxiety disorder
The symptoms of _____ are often mistaken for those of a heart attack.
panic attack
Davis has such an intense, irrational fear of clowns that he cannot take his daughters to see the circus when it is in town. Davis would be most correctly diagnosed as suffering from
a phobia
During the day, Barb suffers from frequent, unwanted thoughts that she has left her front door unlocked and recurrent images that all her belongings have been taken. These thoughts and images are what psychologists refer to as a(n)
obsession
Major changes in sleep patterns, weight level, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activities characterize
major depressive disorder
For some people, their depression lasts only from December to February but returns at the same time each year. This is what psychologists call
seasonal affective disorder
What mood disorder is characterized by alterations between periods of extremely high levels and extremely low levels of activity?
Bipolar disorder
Research into demographic difference in the rates of major depressive disorder, or clinical depression as it is often called, suggests that
men are less likely than women to be diagnosed with the disorder in the US
One suggestion for overcoming depression is given by the behavioral model. What is it?
Engage in pleasurable activities, even when you do not want to, create reinforcers for your behavior.
According to Aaron Beck, depression is often caused by
negative beliefs and expectations
Mr. Evans feels that no matter what he does, he will be unable to convince his boss that he deserves a promotion. He also feels that it doesn't matter who his boss is, he still would not receive a promotion. These feelings represent what Overnier and Seligman called
learned helplessness
Kayla has experienced a decrease in the need for sleep for the past three nights, is extremely talkative and creative, and has been very irresponsible with money during this time. Kayla is in the midst of a(N)
manic episode
Unlike many other psychological disorders, manic episodes may be triggered by
positive life events
What category of psychological disorders is characterized by inflexible and maladaptive behavioral patterns?
Personality disorders
A person who has been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder is most likely to exhibit
impulsivity and unpredictability in his or her interactions with others
What general category of psychological disorders is characterized by a disruption in one's unified sense of identity?
Dissociative disorders
The most severe psychological disorder is
schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a disorder that results form disturbances in ___ that spill into other areas of the person's life.
thought
A patient in a psychiatric hospital exhibits disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations. This person is probably suffering from ________.
schizophrenia
False beliefs held by a person who has no evidence to support such beliefs are known as
delusions
Believing that the government or other people are out to get you is one way in which sufferers of schizophrenia experience their
delusions
Feeling insects crawling on your skin (when none are really there) or hearing voices (when no one is around is talking to you) would be example of what symptoms of schizophrenia?
Hallucinations
Psychotherapy is an intervention designed to help people to deal with and manage
Behavioral, emotional, and interpersonal problems
Which of the following professionals is trained as a medical doctor and may be found working in either private practice or in a hospital setting?
Psychiatrist
During the first month of treatment, many clients improve considerably. In fact, 40 to ____ percent of clients report improvement even before attending their first session.
66
What category of therapy is most concerned with improving a client's awareness of the underlying causes of his or her difficulties?
Insight
in Freudian psychoanalysis, what person was responsible for obtaining the insight into the client's psychological problem?
the therapist
George begins to project his anxieties and unresolved feelings about his mother onto his therapist. This is what Sigmund Freud would have called
transference
Sullivan believed that the analyst's proper role is that of
participant observer
Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is a short-term intervention designed to strengthen people's social skills and assist them in coping with interpersonal problems and conflicts. It typically lasts for _____ sessions
12-16
Interpersonal therapy (IPT) has shown demonstrated success in substance abuse, eating disorders, and
depression
Humanistic psychotherapists would be most likely to work with their clients to focus their attention to the ____ rather than to the ___.
present; past
Humanistic psychotherapists stress the
importance of assuming responsibility for decisions
The ultimate goal of humanistic psychotherapy is for a person to
gain insight and move forward in their seeking of their ultimate potential
In person-centered therapy, this non judgmental acceptance of all feelings the patient expresses is known as
unconditional positive regard
Rogers' and Perls' _______ therapies share an emphasis on the development of human potential and the belief that human nature is basically positive.
humanistic
Psychologists find group therapy to be an effective approach to treatment because
it allows participants to practice new skills in a safe environment
As many as ___ percent of participants drop out within 3 months of joining Alcoholics Anonymous.
68
In family therapy, a therapist seeks to understand
how family member interactions lead to personal problems and difficulties
A behavioral therapist is most likely to focus on
the present and specific behaviors
Systematic desensitization is specifically designed to help a person to deal with his or her
phobia
Flooding therapies are based on the idea that fears are maintained by
avoidance
A crucial component of flooding is_____, in which therapists prevent clients from performing their avoidance behaviors.
response prevention
In ______ therapists teach clients to avoid extreme reactions to others' unreasonable demands, such as submissiveness and aggressiveness
assertion training
In_______, the client engages in role-playing with a therapist to learn and practice new skills.
behavioral rehearsal
The idea of rewarding people with stars or stickers that can be later used for a tangible reward is based on
operant conditioning principles
A key component of Ellis's rational emotive behavior therapy is the psychotherapist's
active disputing and challenging of the client's assumptions