Biblical Archaeology Part 3
Terms in this set (86)
Cour de Cachette
Merneptah commemorated his victories over the Sea Peoples on this wall in Karnak, showed peace treaty and wars. Treaty with the Hittites and Ramses II.
a manuscript page from a scroll or book that has been scraped off and used again
conglomeration of ruined temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings.
The Merneptah Stele aka The Israel Stele (ca. 1206 BC)
is an inscription by the Ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (1213 to 1203 BC), which appears on the reverse side of a granite stele erected by the king Amenhotep III, depicts 5 places with Canaan at the beginning.
coastal city in the South District of Israel. Ruled by many. Canaanite city-state
town in ancient Israel. Land conquered by Joshua, home of the Levites. Canaanite city-state
Israelites are Canaanites
Israelites are Shasu-Bedouin
Egyptian word for pastoral nomads who appeared in the Levant.
1202-1199 BC son of Merneptah and the 5th ruler of the 19th dynasty
1199-1193 ruled at the same time of Amenmesse
taking the throne without properly inheriting it.
Israelite conquest of Canaan according to the archaeological evidence
Some cases back up the Bible while others contradict it.
settlement planning (Giloh)
the only excavated one period site.
The Four room house is the name given to the typical mud brick Israelite house in the iron age Levant. It is so named because its floor plan, the only remaining portion in archeological sites, is divided in four sections. It is also called a pillared house because three ground-level "rooms" are separated by two rows of wood pillars holding the second floor.
pithos/pithoi, large vessel, rim is thick and folded, neck has a collar.
bronze bull figurine
major worship object, connected with Baal, the storm god.
Har Adir one of the earliest known examples of steel tools.
(four have inscriptions "Arrow of 'Abd lb't" [servant of the lioness], Ben Anat, term lb't probably means "lioness", King David had mercenary archers called leba'im (=lions).
Philistines people who occupied the southern coast of Canaan.
Tjeker; later found at Dor, one of the Sea Peoples developed the port of Dor.
the naval battle at Medinet Habu
the Sea People were defeated there
Greek warship with two levels of rowers, putting oars and oarsmen over one another.
The Tale of Wenamun
(1074 B.C.) As the story begins, the principal character, Wenamun, a priest of Amun at Karnak, is sent by the High Priest of Amun Herihor to the Phoenician city of Byblos to acquire lumber (probably cedar wood) to build a new ship to transport the cult image of Amun. After visiting Smendes (Nesbanebded in Egyptian) at Tanis, Wenamun stopped at the port of Dor ruled by the Tjeker prince Beder, where he was robbed. Upon reaching Byblos, he was shocked by the hostile reception he received there. When he finally gained an audience with Zakar-Baal, the local king, the latter refused to give the requested goods for free, as had been the traditional custom, instead demanding payment. Wenamun had to send to Smendes for payment, a humiliating move which demonstrates the waning of Egyptian power over the Eastern Mediterranean. After a wait of almost a year at Byblos, Wenamun attempted to leave for Egypt, only to be blown off course to Alashiya (Cyprus), where he was almost killed by an angry mob before placing himself under the protection of the local queen, whom he called Hatbi. At this point the story breaks off.
a Tjeker leader and ruler of Dor mentioned in the story of Wenamun
The Philistine Pentapolis
Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath at Tell e-Safi
Mycenaean IIIC1b pottery
found in Cyprus, also found in Ashdod and Ekron which gave it 1b.
Philistine Bichrome pottery
(ca. 1150-1000 B.C.) similar to Mycenaean pottery, Philistines were a group of Mycenaean Greeks who produced it locally in Philistine when they moved there.
the "Orpheus" Vase
(ca. 11th century B.C.) most eloquent and decorated, shows figures playing and animals.
(last temple has bent axis approach), Ashdoda, cult object from Tell Qasile, libation vessel - Philistine town planning, 4 acre, 3 strata, 3 temples at Qasile are all different, architecture was different, cult objects, Philistine clay figurine named Ashdoda sitting on a chair, Libation Vessel is a fertility goddess with water coming out of her breasts.
Trade under Solomon
(Phoenicians, Hiram of Tyre) close relations with Hiram of Tyre which helped trade.
cylicia , Egypt, arabia
Israel and Judah
(at Solomon's death) split under Rehoboam's rule
City of David
the "Stepped Structure;" may have been the original city wall. On the east side of Jerusalem.
short cubit (44.5 cm); long or "royal" cubit (52.5 cm);
may not need to know it
tripart division of Solomon's temple
porch (ulam), sanctuary (hechal), Holy of Holies (dvir); columns: Yachin and Boaz - Boaz on left, Yachin on right, made of brass
cherub, angel on each side of the Ark of the Covenant.
Ain Dara temple
noted for its similarities to Solomon's temple, has depicts of lions and sphinxes.
steps protected by lions and sphinxes
cherubim, divine footprints - massive footprints of the god in the Ain Dara temple.
Area H temple
(Hazor) temple built by Solomon, connected to the water table
Tell Tayanat Temple
in north Syria 8th century BC,
Israelite royal architecture, stones on a gate.
(Ramat Rahel) Phoenician Ivory Plaques featuring a woman in the window.
Hazor, Megiddo, Gezer; Stratum VA-IVB
Amalekites (desert nomads) or Israelite penetration? - 60 enclosed structures
Iron Age IIB (925-720 BC)
Divided Monarchy to fall of Samaria
Iron Age IIC (720-586 BC)
To Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem
the Samaria Ostraca
(8th cent. BC) Ostraca of Samaria are Sixty-four legible ostraca which were found in Samaria. These are written in early Hebrew characters, which very closely resemble those of the Siloam Inscription, but show a slight development of the cursive script. These ostraca were found in the treasury of the palace of Ahab.
one of a series of border fortresses built by Solomon
the Black Obelisk Shalmaneser III
(ca. 858-824 BC) receives tribute from Jehu king of Israel - a black limestone Neo-Assyrian sculpture from Nimrud commemorating the deeds of the King. Significant because it is the earliest ancient depiction of an Israelite.
(745-727 BC) inaugurates deportation of populations - King of Assyria, founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, considered the most successful military commander ever. Tribes were deported in two periods.
Shalmaneser V conquers Israel & Samaria
(Israel falls 724 BC, Samaria falls 722 BC); transportation of populations: the "Ten Lost Tribes"
the Prism of Sennacherib
(Nineveh) give Sennacherib's account of the attack on Judah and Jerusalem.
strengthened Jerusalem's wall and tunnel of Siloam (aka Hezekiah's Tunnel) - built in preparation against Assyrians so they could have fresh water.
Water system (Hazor),
Hezekia's Tunnel aka The Siloam Tunnel, Gihon Spring, (also, types of Iron II period water systems) - couldn't get water from Gihon Spring, built tunnel.
the Siloam inscription
writing that is unreadable
The Return to Zion
(538-445 B.C.) Jews return to Israel from Babylonian exile, decree by Cyrus the Great.
The Persian Empire
(539-332 B.C.) conquered Asia, Africa and Europe.
The rebuilding of Jerusalem and the Second Holy Temple
Began under Cyrus, then Darius, then Herod the Great.
Alexander the Great
(332 B.C.) took over Persian Empire. Brought about Hellenistic Period.
The Hellenistic Period
(332-37 B.C.) [Greece - Antigonus - Antigonide Dynasty; Asia - Seleucis - Seleucid Empire; Egypt - Ptolomey - Ptolomaic Empire]
near conquest of Egypt, "line in the sand", rebellion of the Jewish Maccabees.
(Hashmoneans) Jewish rebel army who liberated parts of the Land of Israel from rule of Seleucid Empire. Found the Hasmonean dynasty, ruled from 164-63 BC.
Herod the Great
(37-4 B.C.) known for being a madman and also for his colossal building projects in Jerusalem and other parts of the ancient world including the Second Temple.
Romans destroy Jerusalem & Holy Temple
(A.D. 70) first Jewish-Roman war. Led by Titus.
(Jewish 1st century AD historian) recorded the destruction of Jerusalem.
Herodian ashlar construction
parts of temple built during Second Temple.
right next to the Western Wall. Used for marketplace.
sometimes referred to the Wailing Wall, over half the wall is from the Second Temple Period.
one of the Temple Mount's original gates.
name given by Josephus to the valley or ravine in the Old City of Jerusalem. Separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion. Connected the Temple and Palace.
arch that stood at the south-western corner of the Temple Mount.
The Royal Stoa
the column isles (two story).
"To the place of trumpeting..."
southwest corner where priest would stand each seventh day and announce the arrival of the Sabbath with the trumpet. Stone.
Public walked through the double gate
priests walked through the triple gate
at Southeast point of Eastern wall. A joint between walls with nothing between.
valley on the eastern side of Jerusalem. Seperates Temple Mount from the Mount of Olives. Overlooked by the Tower (Pinnacle of the Temple, Matthew 4:5)
eastern wall, (Herodian)
The Eastern Gate
also known as the Golden Gate, oldest current gates in Jerusalem, believed the Messiah will return through the gate
The Northeastern Tower
Herod built it in 35 B.C. to protect the Temple Mount. Named after Mark Antony.
ancient entrance into the Temple platform which lies about 150 feet into the Western Wall Tunnel.