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- Polyuria - Urine output 5-20 L/day
- Polydipsia - Drinking 4-30 L/day
- Dehydration - Poor skin turgor, dry mucous membranes, hypotension, tachycardia, wt. loss, headache, dizziness, constipation
- Hypovolemic shock - hypotension, tachycardia, decreased CO, decreased cerebral perfusion
- Oliguria - excretion of Na+, reabsorption of water
- Fluid volume excess - wt gain w/o edema, crackles, distended neck veins, taut skin, tachycardia, HTN
- Early manifestations - headache, weakness, anorexia, muscle cramps, wt gain
- Late manifestations - personality changes, hostility, decreased deep-tendon reflexes, n&v, diarrhea, confusion, lethargy, Cheyne-Stokes respirations, seizures, coma, death
DI (Urine & Serum Concentration)
URINE DILUTE/SERUM CONCENTRATED
• Specific gravity less than 1.005
• Low osmolality (50-200 mOsm/kg)
• Decreased pH
• Decreased urine sodium
• Decreased urine potassium
• Increased serum osmolality (greater than 295 mOsm/kg)
• Increased serum sodium
• Increased serum potassium
• Serum Na+ & K+ are high only because serum is concentrated
SIADH (Urine & Serum Concentration)
URINE CONCENTRATED/SERUM DILUTE
• Specific gravity greater than 1.025
• High osmolality (greater than 295 mOsm/kg)
• Increased urine sodium
• Increased urine potassium
• Decreased serum osmolality (less than 270 mOsm/kg)
• Decreased serum sodium
• Decreased serum potassium
PTU is given to suppress the thyroid hormone. Tx goals have been met when client reports...
An increase in weight
(Note: Will also cause decrease in sweat, stool, and appetite)
Before intranasal adm of desmopressin acetate (DDAVP), the nurse should instruct the client to do this
Prior to adm of this med, blow nose gently
Side effects of long term corticosteroid therapy include...
Osteoporosis (depletion of calcium), development of moon-shaped face (due to distribution of fat in face, upper back, trunk), increased risk of infection, and muscle wasting of extremities (depletion of nitrogen)
To promote proper absorption, how should thyroid hormone replacement therapy be taken?
On an empty stomach
Hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome expected findings
- Blood glucose >600 mg/dl
- pH within expected range
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