93 terms

Combo with WAS and 1 other

Barriers of economic development
Low social welfare, foreign debt, political instability, and widespread disease.
when adults and children fleeing poverty or seeking better prospects are manipulated, deceived, and bullied into working in conditions that they would not choose.
Structural Adjustment Loans
Loans granted by international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to countries in the periphery and the semi periphery in exchange for certain economic and governmental reforms in that country(e.g. privatization of certain government entities and combating corruption or holding free elections)
vectored diseases
diseases spread by one host to another by an intermediate host or vector such as a mosquito
infectious disease spread by mosquitos that carry the parasite in their saliva. Kills 150k children a month
pesticide used by Sri Lanka in an aggressive move to fight malaria, killed many mosquitos, but was a carcinogen
the capacity of the mosquito to transmit the malaria parasite, scientists believe that introducing mosquitos that lack this malaria will go down
Intensification of Industrial Production
air and groundwater are polluted
Intensification of agricultural production
desertification is often the result
can tax infra., affects culture too
Export processing zones (EPZs)
periphery or semi sets up areas where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to foreign firms
Mexican EPZs
Special Economic Zones
Chinese EPZs
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)
prompted further industrialization of the border, set up by the US, Canada, and Mexico. facilitated the movement of of service industries from US to mexico
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting, has hit Africa especially hard
progress is being made in tech, production, and socioeconomic welfare
Gross National Product (GNP)
the measure of the total value of the officially recorded goods and services produced by the citizens and corporations of a country in a given year
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
encompasses only goods and services produced within a country during a given year
Gross National Income (GNI)
the monetary worth of what is produced within a country as well as income received from investments outside the country, so is a more accurate way of measuring a countries' wealth in the context of a global economy, the most common way to standardize is per capita GNI
Formal Economy
the legal economy that governments tax and monitor
Informal Economy
Where the per capita GNI is too low for people to survive on, a key component is this, the illegal or uncounted economy that govs to not tax or keep track of
Occupational Structure of the Labor Force
the percentage of workers employed in various sectors of the economy. A high percentage of laborers in food production = probably low overall development
Productivity per Worker
summing production over the course of a year and dividing it by the total number of people in the labor force
Transportation and Communications Facilities per person
reduces railway, road, airline connections, telephone, radio, television, and so forth to a per capita index- reflects the amount of infras. that exists to facilitate econ. activity.
Dependency Ratio
the number of dependents, young and old, that each 100 employed people must support
Modernization Model
assumed that all countries would follow the same path to development, traditional (subsistance farming, society is rigid and unchanging), preconditions of takeoff (progressive leadership moves the country towards greater flexibility, openess, and and diversification), takeoff (industrial revolution, sustained growth takes hold, up urbanization, indusrialization, tech and mass production breakthroughs), drive to maturity (tech diffuse, specialization, international trade up, pop growth slows) and finally high mass consumption (high incomes and widespread production of many goods and services, majority of workers in service sector). Also called the Ladder of development, invented by Rostow.
the combination of what is happening at a variety of scales concurrently
major world powers control the economies of the poorer countries, even though the poorer countries are now politically independent, sovereign states.
Structuralist Theory
economic disparities are built into the system-people built, organized, and structured the world economy in a certain way that cannot be changed easily.
dependency theory
the political and economic relationships between countries and regions of the world control and limit the economic development possibilities of poorer areas.
the country's currency is abandoned in favor of the dollar. In doing so, the poorer country ties their currency to the wealthier one.
World Systems Theory
By Wallerstein, divided world into 3 tier structure, core, periphery, and semi periphery
three-tier structure
wallerstein's division of the world into the core, periphery, and semiperiphery
Mass depletions
loss of diversity through failure to produce new species
Mass Extinctions
mass destruction of most species
Pacific Ring of Fire
an area of unstability and large amounts of volcanic activity
Pleistone Epoch
2 million years ago, the planet was in deep freeze
a cycle of ice age
the "break" in the cycle of ice ages
Wisconsonian Glaciation
the most recent glaciation
the interglacial we are in now
Little Ice Age
late 15th century, got colder, large impacts on human history (famine, plague, etc.)
Environmental Stress
Caused by the destruction of forests, increase in pollution, toxic waste, garbage in oceans, pesticides
Renewable Resources
Resources which replenish as they are being usedq
Porus, waterholding rocks
Thin layer of air, necessary for survival
a vertical plane that cuts through the rocks below and the airspace above, dividing one state territory from another
Political geography
the study of the political organization of the world
a politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government. Must be recognized by other states
not natural
concept of territoriality key
the European concept of this most influenced the development of the modern _____ system, but in 1600s, other places doing too (Native american tribes, SE Asia, etc.) However, diff. b/c sovereignty was expressed over a people rather than a defined and bordered territory. Idea begun by the Peace of Westphalia
the attempt by an individual or a group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area. Closely tied to sovereignty. Means that "we have our own land".
having the last say or control over a territory politically and militarily. Means "no one can control us"
Territorial integrity
incursions from other states-b/c states sovereign, have a right to defend against.
Peace of Westphalia
1648- ended 30 yrs war, contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security. Laid the foundations for territorially defined states in europe
led to the accumulation of wealth through plunder, colonization, and the protection of home industries and foreign markets.
Instability common b/c monarchs struggled for dominance
Eventually, rich middle class ends absolutist rule, city-based merchants getting richer while nobility declined, money+ influence increasingly concentrated around cities, land less important.
Modern state system means territory defines society, not society defining territory. This idea exported, spread in 2 waves of colonialism, laid ground rules for capitalist world econ. When merchants gain power, desire political stability so can trade more effectively. In the drive to stabilize the region, states are formed.
culturally defined group of people with a shared past and a common future who relate to a territory and have political goals
Nation state
a politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space. Few if any exist
unifies state, rids of politically charged identities that might overthrow state
seen as the ultimate form of political expression
key problem is that assumes existance of reasonably well defined, stable nations living within discrete territories
gov. promotes nation b/c then when people nationalistic (support nation) then also supporting state
attempt to build a single national identity (more cohesive nation)
to help people relate to state, gov provides edu, infra, security, etc.
the idea that people are the ultimate sovereign - have the ultimate say in what happens within the state
Multinational State
a state with more than one nation inside of its borders
ex: Yugoslavia
Multistate Nation
when a nation stretches across borders and states
ex: Romania and Hungary
territory crucial to nation
Stateless nation
nations which do not have a state
ex: Kurds, Palestinians
imperial powers had ruthless control, orgainized for max. economic exploitation
after colonialism, organization remains
biggest impact: construction of global order characterized by great differences in economic and political power. (made europe core)
lots of poverty still in home countries b/c not all profited equally
essential to understand geography, look at system as a whole, how each part interacts/influences other parts
World Systems Theory
By Wallerstein, 1: The world economy has one market and a global division of labor
2: Although world has multiple scales, almost everything takes place in the context of the world economy
3: The world economy has a three tier structure
econs of the world are interdependent, tied together
in the world econ, people, corporations, states, produce goods and exchange them on the world market with the goal of making profit
the process of placing a price on a good and then buying, selling, and trading the good.
Core Processes
higher edu, tech, salaries, etc. =more wealth IS A PROCESS
Periphery Processes
lower edu, tech, salaries, etc. =less wealth. IS A PROCESS
PLACES- exploited by the core but also exploiting periphery
To influence others or to achieve goals
between states, a vertical plane that cuts through the rocks below and the airspace above, dividing one state territory from another.
Sadly, resources underground not discovered, so arguments
Established by:
1: Defining- treatylike, legal document in which actual points on the landscape or points of latitude and longitude are described
2: Delimiting- cartographers draw a map
3: Demarcating- optional, using visible means to mark the _____ on the ground
4: Administering: determine how the _____ will be maintained and how goods and people will cross it
Geometric Boundries
drawn using grid systems like lat. and long., or township and range
Physical Political Boundries
also called natural political, follow an agreed upon feature in the physical geographic landscape. Sadly, features not always stable, b/c rivers move, volcanoes erupt, etc.
Definitional Boundary dispute
focus on legal language of the boundary agreement. If agreed upon river, but course of river changes, then def. boundary dispute.
Locational Boundary Dispute
center on the delimitation and possibly demarcation of boundary, def. not in dispute, but interp. is.
Operational Boundary Dispute
neighborhs who disagree over the way the boundary should function- one wants less migration, one doesn't, etc.
Allocational Boundary Dispute
fight over resources crossing borders
the interplay among geography power , politics, and international relations.
German School
Ratzel- If some states so powerful, why? Says state like organism, needs new territory for nourishment. An extreme form of environmental determinism
British/American School
Mackinder-land based power, not sea based, will rule the world, HEARTLAND THEORY, says eurasia=impregnable, resource rich area, "pivot point",
Heartland theory
Who rules east europe controls heartland, who rules heartland controls world island, who rules world island controls world
rise of russia gave more attention to this theory
suggested ways to counteract russias power, NATO was formed
Critical geopolitics
intellectuals of statecraft construct ideas about places, these ideas influence choices, whose ideas influence and reinforce their political behaviors and policy chilies, and how we, the people, process our own notions of places and politics.
US in position of hard power dominance with allies following rather than joining the decision making process
Supranational Organization
a seperate entity comprised of 3 or more states that forge an association and form an admininstrative sturcture for mutual benefit.
league of nations after WWI
collapsed beginning of WWII
Permanent court of international justice
After WWII, UN
has power
GNP (gross national product)
measure of the total value of the officially recorded goods and services produced by the citizens and corporations of a country in a given year, more hollistic than GDP
GDP (gross domestic product)
goods and services produced within a country in a year
GNI (gross national income)
the monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income received from investments outside the country, as a more accurate way of measuring a country's wealth in the context of a global econ.
Limitations: masks inequalities in the distribution of wealth, doesn't measure the informal economy, and doesn't take into account environmental costs
Formal Economy
the legal economy that govs tax and monitor
Informal economy
illegal or uncounted econ that govs do not tax and keep track of (garden in yard or drugs)
With respect to a country, making progress in technology, production, and socioeconomic welfare.
Occupational Structure of the labor force
the percentage of workers employed in various sections of the economy. a high percentage of laborers in food staples signals a low development and a high percentage of laborers in technology signals a high development
productivity per worker
Summing production over the course of a year and dividing it by the total number of people int the labor force. More productive probably means more mechanization, tech, so more developed
transportation and communications facilities per person
Reduces railway,road,airline connections, telephone, radio, television and so forth to a per capita index reflects the amount of infra. that exists to facilitate econ activity
Dependency Ratio
The ratio of the number of people who are either too old or young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their own labor. This is usually expressed in the form n : 100, where n equals the number of dependents.