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chemical hair texture

ability to change the hair's natural wave pattern


tough exterior layer of the hair


responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair


breaking the side bonds of the cortex makes it possible to change the natural wave pattern of the hair


innermost layer of the hair and is often called the pith or core of the hair


does not play a role in chemical texture services


potential of hydrogen

Ph symbol

represents the quantity of hydrogen ions

Ph scale

measures the acidity and alkalinity of a substance by measuring the quantity of hydrogen ions it contains

Ph scale range


chemical texture

raises the ph of the hair to an alkaline state in order to soften and swell the hair shaft

Coarse resistant

has a strong compact cuticle layer requires a highly alkaline chemical solution

keratin proteins

are made of long chains of amino acids linked together end to end like beads

polypeptides chains

long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds

keratin proteins

are long, coiled polypeptide chains, 97% of the hairs structure

side bonds

disulfide bonds, salt, and hydrogen

disulfide bond

are strong chemical side bonds formed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent proteins chains are joined together

salt bonds

are weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges

hydrogen bonds

are weak physical side bonds that are also the result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges

metallic salts

are in some home haircoloring products, that are not compatible with permanent waves

do not proceed

with a service if the client has any scalp abrasions or signs of scalp disease

hair texture

diameter of a single strand of hair and is classified as coarse, medium, or fine

chemical texture services performed on

hair that is overly porous require less of an alkaline texturizer than those performed on normal or resistant hair

lower Ph

minimizes swelling and helps prevent exessive damage to the hair

hair elasticity

is an indication of strength, and more than any other single factor, the elasticity of the hair determines its ability to hold curl

in permanent waving

the rod determines the size of the curl

shape and type of curl

are determined by the shape and type of rod and the wrapping method

selecting the correct perm and wrapping method

is the key to creating a successful permanent

concave rods

are the most common and produce a tighter curl in the center, and a looser curl on either side of the strand

straight rods

are equal in diameter along the entire length

double flat wrap

provides the most control over the hair ends and also helps keep them evenly editributed over the entire length of the rod

book end wrap

uses one end paper folded in half over the ahir ends like an envelope

all perm wraps

begin by sectioning the hair into panels

base sections

subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod in normally placed on each base section

base direction

refers to the angle at which the rod is positioned on the head: horizontally, vertically, or diagonally

croquignole perms

are wrapped from the ends to the scalp

alkaline perm solutions

soften and swell the hair, thus raising the cuticle, which permits the solution to penetrate into the cortex


the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction

reduction reaction

involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen

thioglycolic acid

a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent

ammonium thioglycolate

addition of ammonia to thioglycolic acid produces a new chemical

most alkaline waves

have a ph between 9.0 and 9.6

glyceryl monothioglycolate

GMTG, is an acid with a low ph, is the primary reducing agent in all acid waves

true acid waves

all acids waves have three separate components: permanent waving solution, activator, and neutralizer

acid balanced waves

most of today's salons have a ph between 7.8-8.2

exothermic waves

create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing

endothermic waves

are activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood type dryer, absorbs heat from its surroundings

thio free wave

most common thio free wave rely on cysteamine

disulfide bonds that are broken

the hair will be too weak to hold a curl

thio neutrlization

stops the action of the waving solution, and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form

most common neutralizer

is hydrogen peroxide

properly rinsing the hair

removes any remaining perm solution, prior to applying the neutralizer

curvature perm wrap

partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head

basic perm wrap

also called a straight set wrap, all rods within a panel move in the same direction

double rod technique

also called piggyback, because two rods are used for one strand of hair, one on top of the other

chemical hair relaxing

rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form

thio neutralization

with thio relaxers is an oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide, just as in permanents

hydroxide relaxers

active ingredient, hydroxide ion

hydroxide relaxers

are not compatible with thio relaxers, permanent waves, or soft curl perms because of the different chemistry


hydroxide relaxers remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond, converting it into a lanthionine bond

hydroxide neutralization

does not involve oxidation or rebuilding disulfide bonds

metal hydroxide relaxers

lonic compounds fromed by a metal combined with oxygen and hydrogen

sodium relaxers

are commonly called lye relaxers

lithium hydroxide & potassium hydroxide relaxers

are often adivertised and sold as "no mix-no lye" relaxers

guanidine hydroxide relaxer

contain two components that must be mixed immediately prior to use

no base relaxers

do not require the application of a protective base cream

strength of hydroxide relaxers

parallels the concentration of hydroxide

virgin relaxer

should apply to middle strand starting 1/2" to 1/4" away from the scalp

normalizing lotions

are conditioners with an acidic ph that condition the hair and restore the natural ph prior to shampooing

normalizing shampoo

is an acidic shampoo designed to restore the natural ph of hair and scalp

strand test

will tell you when the hair is sufficiently relaxed

retouch relaxer

to avoid over processing or breakage, do not overlap the relaxer onto the previously relaxed hair

soft curl perm

combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent that is wrapped on large rods

amino acids

are the building blocks of proteins

Too many disulfide bonds broken

the hair will be too weak to hold a firm curl

the rod band

should be smooth, not twisted, and should be fastened straight across the top of the rod

hydroxide relaxers

are very strond alkalis most have a ph over 13 and can swell the hair up to twice its normal diameter

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