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breaking the side bonds of the cortex makes it possible to change the natural wave pattern of the hair
measures the acidity and alkalinity of a substance by measuring the quantity of hydrogen ions it contains
raises the ph of the hair to an alkaline state in order to soften and swell the hair shaft
are strong chemical side bonds formed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent proteins chains are joined together
are weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges
are weak physical side bonds that are also the result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges
chemical texture services performed on
hair that is overly porous require less of an alkaline texturizer than those performed on normal or resistant hair
is an indication of strength, and more than any other single factor, the elasticity of the hair determines its ability to hold curl
are the most common and produce a tighter curl in the center, and a looser curl on either side of the strand
double flat wrap
provides the most control over the hair ends and also helps keep them evenly editributed over the entire length of the rod
subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod in normally placed on each base section
refers to the angle at which the rod is positioned on the head: horizontally, vertically, or diagonally
alkaline perm solutions
soften and swell the hair, thus raising the cuticle, which permits the solution to penetrate into the cortex
a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent
GMTG, is an acid with a low ph, is the primary reducing agent in all acid waves
true acid waves
all acids waves have three separate components: permanent waving solution, activator, and neutralizer
create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing
are activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood type dryer, absorbs heat from its surroundings
stops the action of the waving solution, and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form
curvature perm wrap
partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head
double rod technique
also called piggyback, because two rods are used for one strand of hair, one on top of the other
with thio relaxers is an oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide, just as in permanents
are not compatible with thio relaxers, permanent waves, or soft curl perms because of the different chemistry
hydroxide relaxers remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond, converting it into a lanthionine bond
lithium hydroxide & potassium hydroxide relaxers
are often adivertised and sold as "no mix-no lye" relaxers
are conditioners with an acidic ph that condition the hair and restore the natural ph prior to shampooing
to avoid over processing or breakage, do not overlap the relaxer onto the previously relaxed hair
the rod band
should be smooth, not twisted, and should be fastened straight across the top of the rod
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