77 terms


chemical hair texture
ability to change the hair's natural wave pattern
tough exterior layer of the hair
responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair
breaking the side bonds of the cortex makes it possible to change the natural wave pattern of the hair
innermost layer of the hair and is often called the pith or core of the hair
does not play a role in chemical texture services
potential of hydrogen
Ph symbol
represents the quantity of hydrogen ions
Ph scale
measures the acidity and alkalinity of a substance by measuring the quantity of hydrogen ions it contains
Ph scale range
chemical texture
raises the ph of the hair to an alkaline state in order to soften and swell the hair shaft
Coarse resistant
has a strong compact cuticle layer requires a highly alkaline chemical solution
keratin proteins
are made of long chains of amino acids linked together end to end like beads
polypeptides chains
long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
keratin proteins
are long, coiled polypeptide chains, 97% of the hairs structure
side bonds
disulfide bonds, salt, and hydrogen
disulfide bond
are strong chemical side bonds formed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent proteins chains are joined together
salt bonds
are weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges
hydrogen bonds
are weak physical side bonds that are also the result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges
metallic salts
are in some home haircoloring products, that are not compatible with permanent waves
do not proceed
with a service if the client has any scalp abrasions or signs of scalp disease
hair texture
diameter of a single strand of hair and is classified as coarse, medium, or fine
chemical texture services performed on
hair that is overly porous require less of an alkaline texturizer than those performed on normal or resistant hair
lower Ph
minimizes swelling and helps prevent exessive damage to the hair
hair elasticity
is an indication of strength, and more than any other single factor, the elasticity of the hair determines its ability to hold curl
in permanent waving
the rod determines the size of the curl
shape and type of curl
are determined by the shape and type of rod and the wrapping method
selecting the correct perm and wrapping method
is the key to creating a successful permanent
concave rods
are the most common and produce a tighter curl in the center, and a looser curl on either side of the strand
straight rods
are equal in diameter along the entire length
double flat wrap
provides the most control over the hair ends and also helps keep them evenly editributed over the entire length of the rod
book end wrap
uses one end paper folded in half over the ahir ends like an envelope
all perm wraps
begin by sectioning the hair into panels
base sections
subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod in normally placed on each base section
base direction
refers to the angle at which the rod is positioned on the head: horizontally, vertically, or diagonally
croquignole perms
are wrapped from the ends to the scalp
alkaline perm solutions
soften and swell the hair, thus raising the cuticle, which permits the solution to penetrate into the cortex
the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction
reduction reaction
involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen
thioglycolic acid
a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent
ammonium thioglycolate
addition of ammonia to thioglycolic acid produces a new chemical
most alkaline waves
have a ph between 9.0 and 9.6
glyceryl monothioglycolate
GMTG, is an acid with a low ph, is the primary reducing agent in all acid waves
true acid waves
all acids waves have three separate components: permanent waving solution, activator, and neutralizer
acid balanced waves
most of today's salons have a ph between 7.8-8.2
exothermic waves
create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing
endothermic waves
are activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood type dryer, absorbs heat from its surroundings
thio free wave
most common thio free wave rely on cysteamine
disulfide bonds that are broken
the hair will be too weak to hold a curl
thio neutrlization
stops the action of the waving solution, and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form
most common neutralizer
is hydrogen peroxide
properly rinsing the hair
removes any remaining perm solution, prior to applying the neutralizer
curvature perm wrap
partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head
basic perm wrap
also called a straight set wrap, all rods within a panel move in the same direction
double rod technique
also called piggyback, because two rods are used for one strand of hair, one on top of the other
chemical hair relaxing
rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form
thio neutralization
with thio relaxers is an oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide, just as in permanents
hydroxide relaxers
active ingredient, hydroxide ion
hydroxide relaxers
are not compatible with thio relaxers, permanent waves, or soft curl perms because of the different chemistry
hydroxide relaxers remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond, converting it into a lanthionine bond
hydroxide neutralization
does not involve oxidation or rebuilding disulfide bonds
metal hydroxide relaxers
lonic compounds fromed by a metal combined with oxygen and hydrogen
sodium relaxers
are commonly called lye relaxers
lithium hydroxide & potassium hydroxide relaxers
are often adivertised and sold as "no mix-no lye" relaxers
guanidine hydroxide relaxer
contain two components that must be mixed immediately prior to use
no base relaxers
do not require the application of a protective base cream
strength of hydroxide relaxers
parallels the concentration of hydroxide
virgin relaxer
should apply to middle strand starting 1/2" to 1/4" away from the scalp
normalizing lotions
are conditioners with an acidic ph that condition the hair and restore the natural ph prior to shampooing
normalizing shampoo
is an acidic shampoo designed to restore the natural ph of hair and scalp
strand test
will tell you when the hair is sufficiently relaxed
retouch relaxer
to avoid over processing or breakage, do not overlap the relaxer onto the previously relaxed hair
soft curl perm
combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent that is wrapped on large rods
amino acids
are the building blocks of proteins
Too many disulfide bonds broken
the hair will be too weak to hold a firm curl
the rod band
should be smooth, not twisted, and should be fastened straight across the top of the rod
hydroxide relaxers
are very strond alkalis most have a ph over 13 and can swell the hair up to twice its normal diameter