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chemistry 2nd sem exam review terms

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chemical reaction
the combination of reactants to form products
electrolysis
a decomposition reaction in which water is broken down into hydrogen and oxygen
chemical equation
symbols that describe a chemical reaction and indicate identities and relative amounts of reactants and products
coefficient
numeral used in a chemical equation to indicate relative amounts of reactants and products
combustion
a reaction in which oxygen combines with a substance and releases energy in the form of heat and light
synthesis
two or more substances react to form a single product
decomposition
a single compound is broken down to produce two or more simpler substances
single replacement
a reaction in which the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound
double replacement
involves a change of ions between two compounds
activity series
arrangement of elements in order of their tendency to react with water and acids
products
resulting substances in a chemical reaction
hydronium ion
a hydrogen ion covalently bonded to a water molecule, written as H30+
hydration
process by which water molecules surround each ion as it moves into solution
dissociation
a process using energy to separate a compound into ions in water
strong electrolyte
a substance that is completely or largely dissociated in an aqueous solution
conductance
measurement of a solution's ability to conduct electrical energy
weak electrolyte
a compound that experiences only a small degree of dissociation in an aqueous solution
electrolyte
any substance that, when it is dissolved in a solution, will conduct an electric current by means of movement of ions
nonelectrolyte
a substance that, when dissolved in a aqueous solution, will not conduct an electric current
colligative property
a physical property that is dependent on the number of particles present rather than on the size, mass, or characteristics of those particles
oxyacid
an acid that contains an oxyanion
acid anhydride
an oxide that reacts with water to form an acid
monoprotic
acids that can supply only one hydrogen ion per molecule, like HCl
arrhenius acid
any compound that contains hydrogen and dissociates in aqueous solution to form H+ ions
base anhydride
an oxide that reacts with water to form a base
binary acid
an acid composed of only two elements, one of which is hydrogen
neutralization
a reaction between an acid and a hydroxide base to produce a salt and water
titration
a procedure in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of a second unknown concentration
acid-base indicator
a substance in solution that changes its color as it reacts with either an acid or a base
end point
point in a titration in which an indicator changes color
salt
an ionic product of an acid base reaction
standard solution
a solution of known concentration
unsaturated
solutions containing less than the standard amount of solute specified by the solubility at a given temperature
molarity
concentration unit expressed as moles of solute per liter of solution
alloy
a solid or liquid mixture of two or more metals
solubility
a maximum amount of a chemical that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specified temperature
solvent
material dissolving the solute to make a solution
immiscible
indicates liquids or gases that will not dissolve in each other
solute
material being dissolved in a solution
miscible
indicates liquids or gases that will dissolve in each other
suspension
mixture that appears uniform while being stirred, but separates into different phases when agitation ceases
insoluble
does not dissolve appreciably in a particular solvent
oxidation number
apparent charge assigned to an atom based on the assumption of complete transfer of electrons
lewis structure
diagram showing the arrangement of valence electrons among the atoms of a molecule
single bond
sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms
covalent bond
bond formed when atoms share pairs of electrons
molecule
substance consisting of atoms that are covalently bonded
valence electron
electron present in the outermost energy level of an atom
unshared pair
pair of electrons that is not involved in covalent bonding, but instead belongs exclusively to one atom
double bond
covalent bond formed by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms
triple bond
covalent bond formed by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms
OH-
hydroxide ion
exothermic reaction
reaction that gives off heat
excess reactant
a reactant that will not be used up in a reaction that goes to completion
limiting reactant
reactant that is consumed first in a reaction that goes to completion
stoichiometry
study of quantative relationships between reactants used and products formed by chemical reactions
cation
ion with a positive charge
anion
ion with a negative charge
oxidation number
apparent charge assigned to an atom based on the assumption of complete transfer of electrons
subscript
number at bottom right-hand side of an element; number of formula units in a reaction
reactant
elements being combined in a chemical equation
single replacement
chemical reaction in which one element replaces another element in a compound
synthesis
when 2 elements combine
combustion
exothermic reaction usually involving oxygen
oxyanion
negative ion that contains oxygen
endothermic reaction
reaction that absorbs heat
double replacement
reaction that always requires a molecular compound
energy
always involved in a chemical reaction