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chemical reaction

the combination of reactants to form products


a decomposition reaction in which water is broken down into hydrogen and oxygen

chemical equation

symbols that describe a chemical reaction and indicate identities and relative amounts of reactants and products


numeral used in a chemical equation to indicate relative amounts of reactants and products


a reaction in which oxygen combines with a substance and releases energy in the form of heat and light


two or more substances react to form a single product


a single compound is broken down to produce two or more simpler substances

single replacement

a reaction in which the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound

double replacement

involves a change of ions between two compounds

activity series

arrangement of elements in order of their tendency to react with water and acids


resulting substances in a chemical reaction

hydronium ion

a hydrogen ion covalently bonded to a water molecule, written as H30+


process by which water molecules surround each ion as it moves into solution


a process using energy to separate a compound into ions in water

strong electrolyte

a substance that is completely or largely dissociated in an aqueous solution


measurement of a solution's ability to conduct electrical energy

weak electrolyte

a compound that experiences only a small degree of dissociation in an aqueous solution


any substance that, when it is dissolved in a solution, will conduct an electric current by means of movement of ions


a substance that, when dissolved in a aqueous solution, will not conduct an electric current

colligative property

a physical property that is dependent on the number of particles present rather than on the size, mass, or characteristics of those particles


an acid that contains an oxyanion

acid anhydride

an oxide that reacts with water to form an acid


acids that can supply only one hydrogen ion per molecule, like HCl

arrhenius acid

any compound that contains hydrogen and dissociates in aqueous solution to form H+ ions

base anhydride

an oxide that reacts with water to form a base

binary acid

an acid composed of only two elements, one of which is hydrogen


a reaction between an acid and a hydroxide base to produce a salt and water


a procedure in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of a second unknown concentration

acid-base indicator

a substance in solution that changes its color as it reacts with either an acid or a base

end point

point in a titration in which an indicator changes color


an ionic product of an acid base reaction

standard solution

a solution of known concentration


solutions containing less than the standard amount of solute specified by the solubility at a given temperature


concentration unit expressed as moles of solute per liter of solution


a solid or liquid mixture of two or more metals


a maximum amount of a chemical that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specified temperature


material dissolving the solute to make a solution


indicates liquids or gases that will not dissolve in each other


material being dissolved in a solution


indicates liquids or gases that will dissolve in each other


mixture that appears uniform while being stirred, but separates into different phases when agitation ceases


does not dissolve appreciably in a particular solvent

oxidation number

apparent charge assigned to an atom based on the assumption of complete transfer of electrons

lewis structure

diagram showing the arrangement of valence electrons among the atoms of a molecule

single bond

sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms

covalent bond

bond formed when atoms share pairs of electrons


substance consisting of atoms that are covalently bonded

valence electron

electron present in the outermost energy level of an atom

unshared pair

pair of electrons that is not involved in covalent bonding, but instead belongs exclusively to one atom

double bond

covalent bond formed by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms

triple bond

covalent bond formed by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms


hydroxide ion

exothermic reaction

reaction that gives off heat

excess reactant

a reactant that will not be used up in a reaction that goes to completion

limiting reactant

reactant that is consumed first in a reaction that goes to completion


study of quantative relationships between reactants used and products formed by chemical reactions


ion with a positive charge


ion with a negative charge

oxidation number

apparent charge assigned to an atom based on the assumption of complete transfer of electrons


number at bottom right-hand side of an element; number of formula units in a reaction


elements being combined in a chemical equation

single replacement

chemical reaction in which one element replaces another element in a compound


when 2 elements combine


exothermic reaction usually involving oxygen


negative ion that contains oxygen

endothermic reaction

reaction that absorbs heat

double replacement

reaction that always requires a molecular compound


always involved in a chemical reaction

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