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History of Western Music Final--Composers
Terms in this set (93)
- December 17, 1770 - March 26, 1827
- German composer and pianist
- was a crucial figure in the transition between
Classical and Romantic eras
- composed 9 symphonies, 5 concertos for
piano, 32 piano sonatas, and 16 string
quartets, chamber music, choral works, and
- his hearing began to deteriorate in about 1800
and by the last decade of his life he was almost
totally deaf; he gave up conducting and
performing in public but continued to compose
- in his early period, he was influenced by Haydn
- composed his first and second
symphonies, the set of six string quartets
Opus 18, the first 2 piano concertos, and
the first dozen or so piano sonatas,
including the famous Pathetique sonata
- middle period (Heroic) began shortly after B.
realized he was going deaf; contained large
scale works that express heroism and struggle
- symphonis 3-8; the last 3 piano concertos;
the Triple Concerto; the violin concerto;
string quartets 7-11; several piano sonatas
(including Moonlight Sonata); and B.'s only
- late period began around 1815; works are
characterized by their intellectual depth, their
formal innovations, and intense, highly
- String Quartet Op. 131; the 9th symphony;
the last 5 string quartets; the last 5 piano
- January 31, 1797 - November 19, 1828
- Austrian Composer
- wrote about 600 Lieder, 9 symphonies,
liturgical music, operas, some incidental music,
and chamber and solo piano music
- interest in his work significantly increased after
- Liszt, Schumann, Brahms, and Mendelssohn
discovered and championed his works in the
- seen as one of the leading exponents of the
early Romantic era in music
- unconventional for his time; very experimental
Carl Maria von Weber
- 18/19 November 1786 - 4/5 June 1826
- German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist, and critic; one of the first significant composers of the Romantic era
- Weber's operas Der Freischütz, Euryanthe and Oberon greatly influenced the development of the Romantic opera in Germany;
- Der Freischütz came to be regarded as the first German "nationalist" opera; Euryanthe developed the Leitmotif technique; Oberon may have influenced Mendelssohn's music for A Midsummer Night's Dream and revealed Weber's interest in the music of non-Western cultures
- Weber composed four sonatas, two concertos and the Konzertstück in F minor (provided a new model for one-movement concertos)
- Weber's woodwind compositions are very well known; used multiphonics in a trumpet piece
- large body of Catholic religious music that was popular in 19th century Germany
- composed one of the earliest song cycles, Die Temperamente beim Verluste der Geliebten
- one of the first conductors to conduct without a piano or violin
- influenced German composers like Meyerbeer, Glinka, Wagner, as well as Debussy, Stravinsky, and Mahler
- 24 January 1776 - 25 June 1822
- Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann
- German Romantic author of fantasy and horror
and a composer
- he is the subject and hero of Jacques
Offenbach's famous but fictional opera The
Tales of Hoffmann
- the author of The Nutcracker and the Mouse
King, on which the famous ballet The
Nutcracker is based
- the ballet Coppélia is based on two other
stories that Hoffmann wrote
- Schumann's Kreisleriana is based on
Hoffmann's character Johannes Kreisler
- Hoffmann's stories were very influential during
the 19th century; he is one of the major
authors of the Romantic movement.
• wrote the Birth of Christ- Oratorio
• The Trojans (5.5 hours long) took french opera to the extreme
• orchestra was used as more than an accompaniment to the voices
• dominant opera composer in Paris in 1830
• Robert the Devil, Le Prophet, Afraine
• The Huguenots (battle between protestants and Catholics. Importance of scenery and dramatic harmonies)St. Bartholomew's massacre. Catholics organize peace meeting with Protestants, but kill them instead. Mesmerized the public. Overwhelmed Verdi, show him importance of scenery and dramatic harmonies.
• Wrote many grand operas- heavy on chorus and orchestra, dramatic, heavy scenery and costumes.
- 8 June 1810 - 29 July 1856
- German composer and influential music critic
- one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era
- stopped studying law to pursue music; wanted to be a piano virtuoso
- his piano teacher claimed he would be the greatest pianist but a hand injury prevented him from playing so he kept composing
- compositions were exclusively for piano until 1840
- later composed works for piano and orchestra; many Lieder (songs for voice and piano); four symphonies; an opera; and other orchestral, choral, and chamber works
- Kinderszenen, Album für die Jugend, Blumenstück, Sonatas and Albumblätter are among his most famous works
- 1840, against her father's wishes, married the pianist Clara Wieck, daughter of his former teacher, in 1840 against her father's wishes (day before she turned 21); absence of his consent led to a long legal battle, which Clara and Robert won
- for the last two years of his life, after an attempted suicide, Schumann was confined to a mental institution, at his own request
- through his protégé Brahms, Schumann's ideals and musical vocabulary became widely disseminated
- 13 September 1819 - 20 May 1896
- German musician and composer; considered one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era
- wife of composer Robert Schumann
- had a career of 61 years
- changed the format and repertoire of the piano recital; started including her own compositions
- was the first pianist to give public performances of some of Brahms' works, specifically the "Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel"
- she was a child prodigy
- performed publicly often in recitals and tours
- really didn't like Liszt or Wagner
• Elijah the popular oratorio- Villagers call on their false god Baal to get rain on land-doesn't, Elijah says his prayer and rain appears
• Fingal's Cave: Based on Scottish Travels and an Overture and is an example of sonata form (Waves crashing onto rocks) Precursor to the tone poem. Describing something extra musicial in the music. Listen to the story
- 14 November 1805 - 14 May 1847
- German pianist and composer
- sister of Felix Mendelssohn
- showed prodigious musical ability as a child
- father was not very supportive of her musical talents; said it could be a career for Felix but only a hobby for Fanny since she was a woman; her husband was supportive of her composing
- composed over 460 pieces of music
- her piano works are often in the manner of songs, and many carry the name Lied ohne Worte (Song without Words); this style (and title) of piano music was most successfully developed by Felix Mendelssohn, though some modern scholars assert that Fanny may have preceded him in the genre
- March 1, 1810 - October 17, 1849
- a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist
- widely considered one of the greatest Romantic piano composers
- a renowned child prodigy, he grew up in Warsaw and completed his music education there; he composed many of his mature works in Warsaw before leaving Poland in 1830 at age 20
- most of Chopin's works are for solo piano, though he also wrote two piano concertos, a few chamber pieces and some songs to Polish lyrics
- his piano works are often technically demanding, emphasizing nuance and expressive depth
- Chopin invented the instrumental ballade and made major innovations to the piano sonata, mazurka, waltz, nocturne, polonaise, étude, impromptu, scherzo and prélude
- used a lot of chromaticism and counterpoint
- Chopin was the first to write ballades and scherzi as individual pieces; he took the example of Bach's preludes and fugues and essentially established a new genre with his own Préludes
- he reinvented the étude, expanding on the idea and making it into a gorgeous, eloquent and emotional showpiece, and he used his Études to teach his own revolutionary style - for instance playing with the weak fingers (3, 4, and 5) in fast figures (Op. 10, No. 2), playing in octaves (Op. 25, No. 10), and playing black keys with the thumb (Op. 10, No. 5)
- Over 230 Chopin works survive; all his known works involve the piano, and only a few range beyond solo piano music, as either piano concertos or chamber music
- 59 mazurkas
- 27 études (twelve in the Op. 10 cycle, twelve in the Op. 25 cycle, and three in a collection without an opus number)
- 27 preludes
- 21 nocturnes
- 20 waltzes
- 18 polonaises, including one with orchestral accompaniment and one for cello and piano accompaniment
- 5 rondos
- 4 ballades
- 4 impromptus
- 4 scherzos
- 4 sets of variations, including Souvenir de Paganini
- 3 écossaises
- 3 piano sonatas
- 2 concerti for piano and orchestra, Op. 11 and 21
• Major composer of tone poems (tells a story within the orchestra). Describing something extra musical in the music. Listen to the story
• Battle of the Huns (influenced from a canvas painting, different sounds represent different armies, organ to symbolize church)
• Le Preludes (modeled after Beethoven's 5th)
(27 October 1782 - 27 May 1840)
- an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer.
- He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique.
- His Caprice No. 24 in A minor, Op. 1, is among the best known of his compositions, and has served as an inspiration for many prominent composers.
- Paganini composed his own works to play exclusively in his concerts, all of which profoundly influenced the evolution of violin technique
- Paganini's compositions were technically imaginative, and the timbre of the instrument was greatly expanded as a result of these works.
- Sounds of different musical instruments and animals were often imitated. One such composition was titled Il Fandango Spanolo (The Spanish Dance), which featured a series of humorous imitations of farm animals. Even more outrageous was a solo piece Duetto Amoroso, in which the sighs and groans of lovers were intimately depicted on the violin.
- Giovanni Battista Viotti (12 May 1755 - 3 March 1824)
- Italian violinist whose virtuosity was famed and whose work as a composer featured a prominent violin and an appealing lyrical tunefulness.
- was also a director of French and Italian opera companies in Paris and London.
- Viotti's most notable compositions are his twenty-nine violin concertos, which were an influence on Ludwig van Beethoven
- Sigismond Thalberg (January 8, 1812 - April 27, 1871)
- a composer and one of the most distinguished virtuoso pianists of the 19th century
- influenced by Bellini, Meyerbeer, and Weber
- Carl Czerny; 21 February 1791 - 15 July 1857
- an Austrian pianist, composer and teacher.
- His vast musical production (more than a thousand pieces and up to Opus 861) is undergoing a process of rediscovery.
- Czerny´s books of études for the piano are still widely used in the pianistic pedagogy.
- he was a child prodigy
- became the student of Beethoven after impressing B by playing his Sonata Pathetique so well at the age of 10; he proofread many of B's pieces before they were published
- Basing his method on the teaching of Beethoven and Clementi, Czerny taught up to twelve lessons a day in the homes of Viennese nobility
- taught Thalberg
- Czerny composed a large number of piano solo exercises for the development of the pianistic technique
- (Isaac) Ignaz Moscheles (23 May 1794 - 10 March 1870)
- a Bohemian composer and piano virtuoso
- succeeded Felix Mendelssohn as head of the Conservatoire in Leipzig
- worked a lot of Slavic and Czech themes
- Among his 142 opus numbers, Moscheles wrote a number of symphonic works.
- Apart from an overture and a symphony, all are scored for piano and orchestra
- Louis Spohr (5 April 1784 - 22 October 1859)
- German composer, violinist and conductor.
- Highly regarded during his lifetime, but now obscure
- Spohr published nine symphonies, ten operas, fifteen violin concerti, four clarinet concerti, and various works for small ensemble.
- the inventor of both the violin chinrest and the orchestral rehearsal mark.
- His output occupies a pivotal position between Classicism and Romanticism
• Sickly playboy
• Father of Russian music. Studies Opera for 6 weeks then premiers his first Opera.
• Life of Czar- Patriotic story about Russia, peasant gives his life in order to save the czar. Scenery, language, costumes were all Russian. Music was Italian.
• Polychordal music
• Pushkin- Russia's greatest writer, Glinka picks the story Ruslan + Lindmilla- a princess who is looking for a husband with a bunch of suitors Ruslan is the ideal choice and has to rescue her from sleep or something
• Scales- Wrote in variety of scales including whole tone scale (no fifths), pentatonic
• Rhythm- Meters in groups of 5, mixed meters,
• Deep Russian bass singers, bells, zorna (oboe equilvilent in turkey, ceria, etc. folky), balalaika (trapezoid shaped folk guitar)
o Lesginka. Dance in the opera. Polychordal music, otherwise not found in 1842. Oriental scale with augmented 2nd.
o Bases entire scene in whole ton scale. Can be heard in bass (first time in classical music). Cannot have a perfect 5th, triton is a major sound.
- Henri François Joseph Vieuxtemps (17 February 1820 - 6 June 1881)
- a Belgian composer and violinist
- a prominent exponent of the Franco-Belgian violin school during the mid-19th century
- wrote many concertos, 3 string quartets, pieces for viola, and pieces for violin and piano
• Earliest compositions are masses and motets for the catholic churches he worked for, composed quite a body of religious music.
• 1860s- starts writing symphonies 1870s and 80s- turns out symphonies
• Felt insecure about composer, too open to criticism
• Vienese support brahms while Bruckner worships wagner.
• Symphonies were criticized by brahms supporters, so he sought Wagners support
• 3rd symphony- dedicated to Wagner, 3 separate versions in an attempt to satisfy critics.
• Big symphonies, long, scored for large orchestra, brass sections have increased tremendously, all dimensions are going and being taken advantage of. Brahms is still must in the old tradition. Increases the number of themes from 2 groups to 3 contrasting dramatic groups.
SEE PRINTED SHEET
- Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 - 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist
- spent much of his professional life in Vienna, Austria, where he was a leader of the musical scene
- he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs"
- Brahms composed for piano, chamber ensembles, symphony orchestra, and for voice and chorus
- A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works; he worked with some of the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann
- His music is firmly rooted in the structures and compositional techniques of the Baroque and Classical masters.
- He was a master of counterpoint and of development
- aimed to honour the "purity" of these venerable "German" structures and advance them into a Romantic idiom, in the process creating bold new approaches to harmony and melody
- many contemporaries found his music too academic
- Brahms maintained a Classical sense of form and order in his works
- A German Requiem was partially inspired by his mother's death in 1865
- worshipped Beethoven
- Brahms's First Symphony bears strongly the influence of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, as the two works are both in C minor, and end in the struggle towards a C major triumph
- The early Romantic composers had a major influence on Brahms, particularly Schumann, who encouraged Brahms as a young composer
- also influenced by Schubert, Mendelssohn, and Chopin
- Brahms wrote settings for piano and voice of 144 German folk songs, and many of his lieder reflect folk themes or depict scenes of rural life.
- His Hungarian Dances were among his most profitable compositions.
- influenced Dvorack and Schoenberg who respected Brahms's fondness for motivic saturation and irregularities of rhythm and phrase
• Cellist. Wrote famous cello concerto
• Submits a composition to composers in Vienna and was judged by Brahms, and Brahms instantly made him the winner.
• Brahms asked Dvorak to live with him and study but Dvorak refuses saying he belongs in Bohemia
• Wrote operas, symphonies, overtures on nationalistic themes, and dances
• Wrote New World Symphony (tried to incorporate American sounds and used Bohemian scales)
• Wrote several string quartets and primarily Bohemian dance
- influenced by Brahms
- Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti; 29 November 1797 - 8 April 1848
- an Italian composer
- best-known works are the operas L'elisir d'amore (1832), Lucia di Lammermoor (1835), and Don Pasquale (1843), all in Italian, and the French operas La favorite and La fille du régiment (both from 1840).
- Along with Vincenzo Bellini and Gioachino Rossini, he was a leading composer of bel canto opera.
- Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini; 3 November 1801 - 23 September 1835
- an italian opera composer
- his greatest works are I Capuleti ed i Montecchi (1830), La sonnambula (1831), Norma (1831), Beatrice di Tenda (1833), and I puritani (1835)
- Known for his long-flowing melodic lines, for which he was named "the Swan of Catania"
- Along with Donizetti and Rossini, he was a leading composer of bel canto opera.
- Gioachino Antonio Rossini; 29 February 1792 - 13 November 1868
- an Italian composer
- wrote 39 operas as well as sacred music, chamber music, songs, and some instrumental and piano pieces
- His best-known operas include the Italian comedies Il barbiere di Siviglia (The Barber of Seville) and La Cenerentola and the French-language epics Moïse et Pharaon and Guillaume Tell
- nicknamed the "Italian Mozart" because of his song-like melodies
- Until his retirement in 1829, Rossini had been the most popular opera composer in history
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi; 10 October 1813 - 27 January 1901
- an Italian Romantic composer primarily known for his operas
- Verdi is considered with Richard Wagner the most influential composer of operas of the nineteenth century
- dominated the opera scene after Rossini, Bellini, and Donizetti
- wrote Rigoletto, La traviata, Il travatore, and Aida
• Writes mainly in the 20th century
• Manon- whore living in paris flirting with son of nobleman, son doesn't like it so tries to get rid of the whore and son goes with her. They end up in New Orleans.
• La Boheme- Story of 4 bohemians living in paris starving. Very real story, no pretentions. No big dramatic political and social events.
• Madame butterfly- everyday experience, 1904, japan,
• American opera- the girl of the golden west, takes place in cali
• One step in 19th century and another well into the 20th century
• Writes mainly in the 20th century
• Manon- whore living in paris flirting with son of nobleman, son doesn't like it so tries to get rid of the whore and son goes with her. They end up in New Orleans.
• La Boheme- Story of 4 bohemians living in paris starving. Very real story, no pretentions. No big dramatic political and social events.
• Madame butterfly- everyday experience, 1904, japan,
• American opera- the girl of the golden west, takes place in cali
• One step in 19th century and another well into the 20th century
• Exoticism (foreign influences including Spain)
• Carmen in 1875
o Deals with normal people
o Opera comique, follows form established spoken dialogue and sung airas and choruses
o Became so successful that the Grand Opera wanted to have it
o 1875. Exotic flavors. Main protagonist is bull fighter. Singing of gypsy songs. Spanish instruments
o Carmen is a cigarette factory worker / prostitute
o Sings famous Habanera. African rhythm brought over by slaves. She is teasing a young soldier who spurns her but eventually falls in love with her. Love is flight, gets around
o Rich orchestration and choral singing brought in form grand opera
o Not a comedy, Carmen betrays a lover, lover kills Carmen
• Lakme (Exotic, takes place in India, makes fun of English occupation. Attempted to capture Indian sounds)
- an Italian Realist composer
- wrote Pagliacci (The Sad Clown) in 1902 and La
- a "one-opera-composer"; like Leoncavallo
- wrote Cavaliera Rusticana in 1890
• Converts to catholicism and becomes conductor at the opera in Vienna
• His style is not as harsh as Strauss and uses a post-wagnerian and has a large brass and percussion section
• Very tuneful
• Bernstein revived his music
• Heir of Bruckner in many ways, long involved symphonies, elongated structure and increased size of orchestra
• 1950s revival of Mahlers symphonies
• Wrote song cycles for solo voices and orchestra, symphonic in scope but organized as song cycles kindentotenlieder Songs on the Death of Children
• Symphonies 2,3,4, and 8 have voices.
• Symphony 4- vocals come in 4th movement. Sleigh bells identifies the piece.
• Not as harsh as Strauss, using an orchestra that is post-wagnerian, increased size and increased percussion. Very tuneful. Traditional harmonies (cadences)
• Symphony 5- Chooses c# minor, reminiscent of Beethoven's 5th in C minor.
• The history of the growth of the orchestra (size # and type of ins) goes from 1730s-culminates with Mahler. Living in Vienna the same time as freud, comes out in mahler with absorption of death.
• Writing tone poems through end of 19th century, changes to operas in 20th century, becomes one of the most prolific in Germany and the 20th century
• Tone poems based on very personal or literary subjects. Based on the program music of Berlioz and Liszt
• Don Juan was very popular
• Dies in 1949, last opera is 44-45
• Rosen Kavalier - most famous opera
• Lives in munich and Vienna- arts are important and wealthy, holy roman empire is dying.
• Sigmound Freud- explores the subconscious - a revelation that we all have hidden drives and suppressions of human nature
• Oscar Wilde- Salome - opera by Strauss - Freudian characteristics- story of people acting on inner most psychological drives, which are horrible. Stepfather Herod is a dirty old man who is really after Salome. Queen sides with Salome who is disgusted with Herod. Herod's guard Salome is in love with Salome. Johanan preaching to everybody about how bad everyone is and is put in a dungeon and no one can talk to him. Herod is scared of him. Singing is post Wagnerian.
• Ushers in a whole new era of expressoinalism. Singing that was not always hitting notes, moans and other types of sounds are new and accepted.
• Expressionism- taking your inner most concepts and expressing them
• Autobiographical Tone poems: Also Sprach Zarathustra, the Hero's Life
• expressionism (expressed the innermost feelings and emotions of the composer
- Eduard Hanslick (11 September 1825 - 6 August 1904) was a German Bohemian music critic.
- Hanslick's tastes were conservative;
- said that for him musical history really began with Mozart and culminated in Beethoven, Schumann and Brahms.
- He is best remembered today for his critical advocacy of Brahms as against the school of Wagner; "the War of the Romantics"
Antoine-Joseph "Adolphe" Sax (6 November 1814 - c. 4 February 1894) was a Belgian musical instrument designer and musician who played the flute and clarinet, and is best known for having invented the saxophone.
- Ignace Joseph Pleyel; (18 June 1757 - 14 November 1831) was an Austrian-born French composer and piano builder of the Classical period.
- pupil of Haydn
- Pleyel was prolific, composing 41 symphonies, 70 string quartets and several string quintets and operas.
- Pleyel's production tailed off after he had become a businessman.
- The piano firm Pleyel et Cie was founded by Ignace Pleyel and continued by Pleyel's son Camille
- The firm provided pianos used by Frédéric Chopin, and also ran a concert hall, the Salle Pleyel, in which Chopin performed his first—and also his last—Paris concerts.
- Vincent d'Indy; (27 March 1851 - 2 December 1931) was a French composer and teacher
- student of César Franck at the Conservatoire de Paris
- The first of his works he heard performed was a Symphonie italienne, at an orchestral rehearsal
Hans von Bülow
- Baron Hans Guido von Bülow (January 8, 1830 - February 12, 1894)
- a German conductor, virtuoso pianist, and composer of the Romantic era
- one of the most famous conductors of the 19th century, and his activity was critical for establishing the successes of several major composers of the time, including Richard Wagner
- Bülow was a supporter of the music of both Brahms and Tchaikovsky
- a devotee of Frédéric Chopin's music; he came up with epithets for all of Chopin's Opus 28 Preludes
- composed and transcribed for piano
- conducted Wagner's tristan und Isolde and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg
- Max Christian Friedrich Bruch (6 January 1838 - 2 October 1920)
- a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including three violin concertos, the first of which has become a staple of the violin repertory.
- His complex and well-structured works in the German Romantic musical tradition, placed him in Romantic classicism with Brahms
- he was known primarily as a choral composer
- Violin Concerto No. 1, in G minor, Op. 26 (1866) is one of the most popular Romantic violin concertos
- influenced by Felix Mendelssohn
- Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger (19 March 1873 - 11 May 1916)
- German composer, conductor, pianist, organist, and academic teacher
- studied music in Munich and Wiesbaden with Hugo Riemann
- From 1907-1908 he worked in Leipzig as music director of the university
- also worked at the conservatory as the professor of composition until his death
• Faust 1859 (man makes a deal with the devil); opera in 5 acts
o Story of an elderly man who bemoans the fact he spent his life in books, has the hots for young girl marguerite
o Makes a deal with the devil so he can go after the girl
o Eventually gets the girl, gets her preggers. She goes to heaven, he goes to hell
o Less pretentious, beautiful singing . Not allowed in Paris Opera
o Drinking song- Idea of lighthearted spirit
o Waltz- famous dance of the period, popular part of the opera.
o March when soldiers return from war, marguerite is preggers
o Alternative of grand opera; not satirical, but meant to command a higher level of thinking (than Offenbach)
- attempted to bring opera to the next level
• less pretentious singing
• Manon Lescaut- 1730s by French priest who has never been to usa. Son falls in love with whore, father kidnaps daughter and sends her to the "desert of new Orleans"
- Jules Massenet (1842 - 1912)
- a successful lyric opera composer
- Manon (1884); Werther (1892); Thais (1894)
- most famous French composer of the time
- both Massenet and Gounod shaped their melodies around the natural speech rhythms of the French language, resulting in asymmetrical phrases and strange contours
- this impressionistic style has come to be a characteristic of the French musical style
- a Belgian composer
- came to Paris to study at the Conservatoire and became a professor of organ there in 1871
- mainly worked in instrumental genres and oratorio
- distinct style of blending traditional counterpoint and classical forms with Liszt's thematic transformation, Wagner's harmony, and the Romantic idea of cyclic unification through thematic (motivic) return
- influenced by Liszt; composed symphonic poems
- main influences were: the harmonic and thematic methods of Liszt and Wagner; the organ music of Bach; the French Baroque
- his Prelude, Chorale, and Fugue (1884) for piano exemplifies his style: a Baroque toccata in the prelude; introduction of a chorale-like melody in distant keys; presents a fugue on a chromatic subject that was previously foreshadowed; and closes by combining the opening toccata texture with the chorale melody and fugue subject in counterpoint
- called the Founder of Modern French Chamber Music
- all of his chief chamber works are cyclic, featuring themes that recur or are transformed in two or more movements
- his Symphony in D Minor (1888), a model of cyclic form, is perhaps the most popular French symphony after Berlioz
• Samson and Delila 1877
- example of Exoticism
- Exotic, takes place in Palestine. No one wants it in Paris because it was too biblical, first screening was in Germany.
- Bacchanala: very exotic dance scene in 3rd act; uses augmented 2nds at the end of oboe phrases to mimic middle eastern instruments; a "tribal" ballet, acrobatic, "hand painting"
- French premiere in 1890, did not make it to Paris until the late 1890s, suddenly became immensely popular
- Tries to capture mystique of belly dancer
- influenced by Rossini and Liszt
- taught Franck and Faure
- in the early 1900s, conservative nationalists promoted classically oritented composers; the left-ting gov't responded by promoting French composers from after the Revolution like Saint-Saens and Berlioz who "freed French music from the bonds of tradition"
- Neo-classicism as the patriotic French musical trend after WWI; use of classical genres and forms, tonal centers, and common-practice or neotonal harmonies, allied with emotional restraint and a rejection of Romantic excess
- Gabriel Faure: 12 May 1845 - 4 November 1924
- a French composer, organist, pianist and teacher
- his music embodies the qualities of French musical tradition of restraint, order, lyricism, and simplicity
- studied under Saint-Saens at the Ecole Niedermeyer
- a founder of the Societe Nationale
- became professor of composition at the Paris Conservatoire in 1896 and was its director from 1905-1920
- primarily a composer of songs; of piano music, mainly preludes, impromptus, nocturnes, and barcarolles; and of chamber music
- wrote some music in larger forms, such as his best-known work, the Requiem (1887), as well as 2 operas
- lyrical melody with no display of virtuosity is the basis of his style
- in his maturity (from 1885 on) he developed a new style in which melodic lines are fragmented and harmony becomes much less directional
- his harmonic successions dilute the need for a resolution and undermine the pull of the tonic, creating a sense of repose or stasis that is the OPPOSITE of the emotional unrest of Wagner and Romantic compositions
- Amédée-Ernest Chausson: 20 January 1855 - 10 June 1899
- a French romantic composer
- died just as his career was beginning to flourish
- born in Paris into a prosperous bourgeois family
- in 1879, at the age of 25, he studied composition with Jules Massenet at the Paris Conservatoire
- From 1886 until his death in 1899, Chausson was secretary of the Société Nationale de Musique
- friends with many famous composers such as Faure, Massenet, Debussy, and d'Indy
- Chausson's work is usually divided into 3 periods
- 1st was dominated by Massenet; Chausson primarily uses fluid and elegant melodies
- 2nd started in 1886 and is more dramatic
- 3rd started in 1894 after his father's death when he was influenced by symbolist poets and Russian literature, esp. Turgenev, Dostoyevsky, and Tolstoy
- believed to be the first composer to use the celesta
- his music is very individualistic; technical influences from Wagner and Franck; stylistic traces of Massenet and Brahms
- Chausson's compositional style bridges the gap between the ripe Romanticism of Massenet and Franck and the more introverted Impressionism of Debussy
- not very prolific; only 39 opus-numbered pieces
• Impressionism (Russian influences in French Music)
• Teaches Von Meck's kids in Switzerland in the summers which changed the history of music. She sends his work to Tchaikovsky who then influences Debussy to use Russian music in French music and creates Impressionism
• France and Prussia are at war. Did away with anything German. Strong nationalism.
• Debussy decided to use Russian music as the future for French music. Looks for new styles until he develops impressionism
• Preludes of the Afternoon of a Faun
• No consistent meter, folk rhythms which often are oddball rhythms, mixed meters, except you don't hear a steady beat in this piece.
• Free rhythmically, flows.
• Harmony- use scales other than western scales, whole tone, pentatonic - no sense of major, minor, tonic, key, etc. No form.
• Thrown out a lot of basics of historical tradition. Timeless.
• Picks chords you can't associate easily. Lots of color created in a free type of harmony and rhythm, allowing him to go farther than previous color composers.
• Waves- a prelude, Debussy named all of his preludes (like tone poems). All notes are part of whole note or pentatonic scale.
• Estampes- medieval dance. Took the term, but it has nothing to do with the 3 pieces. Each piece has something to do with Spain. Each one is a tone poem for piano with varying effects.
• Orchestral nocturne- "Clouds"- represent the fluid nature of clouds. Very peaceful.
• 3 movement of tone poem "le mer"- exciting, filled with emotion and motion. Not at all Germanic in sound. Based on the things the Russians did.
• Wrote an opera without arias. Entirely impressionistic, including the story .
• Writes a string quartet in G early in his career
• WWI, writes a series of sonatas moving beyond impressionism, innovative. He also becomes a father and worships his daughter.
• Grasshopper doing the cakewalk- song for kids, key and chords with a taste of impressionism
• Peliéas et Mélisande (opéra)
- Ferruccio Dante Michelangelo Benvenuto Busoni
- 1 April 1866 - 27 July 1924
- Italian composer, pianist, editor, writer, piano and composition teacher, and conductor
- child of a clarinetist and a pianist; a child prodigy
- won the Anton Rubinstein Competition in 1890 with his Concert Piece for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 31a
- moved to Berlin in 1894 and promoted contemporary music
- returned to Berlin in 1920 where he gave master classes in composition; taught Kurt Weill, Edgard Varèse, Friedrich Löwe, Aurelio Giorni and Stefan Wolpe
- composed mostly for the piano
- used a lot of different melodies simultaneously; music was not atonal, but in an indeterminate key; wrote senza tonalità
- Bach and Liszt were key influences; later on in his life he composed more neo-Classically and was influenced by Mozart
- drew inspiration from non-European sources, including Indian Fantasy for piano and orchestra
- Edvard Grieg (1843-1907)
- a Norwegian composer
- gave voice to the nationalist view of composing
- helped create a Norwegian musical identity by using native folk songs, dances, instruments, and sounds
- wrote a series of songs, short piano pieces, and orchestral suites that emulated modal melodies and harmonies as well as the dance rhythms of his native Norway
- Peer Gynt Suite (1875) and the Slatter showcase Norwegian ethnicity; include peasant dances that Grieg arranged for the piano from transcripts of country fiddle playing
- uses grace notes and mordents (like Chopin), but his main influence is Norwegian folk songs and dances reflected in his modal turns of melody and harmony: Lydian raised fourth, Aeolian lowered seventh, alternative major-minor third; frequent drones in the bass or middle register like Norwegian stringed instruments; uses 3/4 and 6/8 rhythm in Slatter
- Halling (norwegian Dance), Op. 47. No. 4: uses circling melodies with subtle variations, grace notes, open strings, and drone 5ths
- not always nationalistic; studied at the Leipzig Conservatory and was influenced by Mendelssohn and Schumann; his Piano Concerto in A Minor (1868, rev. 1907) is modeled off of Schumann's piano concerto in the same key
- part of "The Mighty 5"
- Sailed the world because his parents were famous sailors.
- wrote Scherazade; famous 4 movement tone poem, each movement is a different story and are woven together by the thematic motives of the Sultan and his wife Scherazade in a violin solo; these recurring themes give it a thematic unity similar to the cyclic symphonies of Franck and Tchaikovsky
- composed several operas and symphonic works; flight of the bumblebee; best known for his programmatic orchestral works; also wrote symphonies, chamber music, choruses, songs, and operas
- Capriccio espagnol (1887) and the symphonic suite Scherazade (1888) exemplify exoticism and are based on Spanish themes and the Arabian Nights; the Russian Easter Overture (1888) is a nationalist piece that uses Russian Orthodox liturgical melodies
- became a leading teacher at the Russian conservatory
- taught Stravinsky
Piotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky
• most prominent Russian composer of the 19th century; both in Russia and in the West
• First student at the St. Petersburg Conservatory (Anton's conservatory) and became the professor of composition at Nikolay's conseratory.
• Open minded internationalist composer.
• synthesizes national and international philosophies; combined his Russian heritage with influences from Italian opera, French ballet, and German symphony and song
• composed for ballets
• 4th symphony
• Hears trumpet calls in the barracks and dedicates it to his patron. Very loud and very bombastic intro, writes in sonata form due to his western training. Resembles Beethoven's sonata pathetique in the intro comes back
• Uses unusual instruments
• Military trumpets act as a unifying piece in the movement to let you know where you are in the piece.
• Second movement, not using whole tone scales and ploychords- straight forward western. Very Russian, oboe solo creates a unique sound.
• 3rd movement is unique- A section is al strings B al winds then A then mix in coda. Final movement- loud crashing descending scale with variations3/6. Typical scherzo form, balalaika.
• Von Meck was patron for over 13 years on the condition that they never met. Inaugurated Carnegie Hall
• 1875 reads play Eugene Onegin by Pushkin. About a playboy whose best friend from an aristocracy in a young village is getting married. Bride's sister falls in love with Onegin. She writes a love letter. Onegin tells her hes too suave for her and she becomes insulted. Same thing happens to Tchaikovsky and a female student, so he has an affair with female student, realizes hes gay, and has a nervous breakdown.
• Symphony pathetique- depressing 1st movement. 2nd movement—beautiful melody in 5/4
• composed 8 operas: Eugene Onegin; The Queen of Spades
• composed 3 ballets- Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, and The Nutcracker (written by E.T.A. Hoffmann)
• composed 6 symphonies; 2 piano concertos; a violin concerto; symphonic poems and overtures (Romeo and Juliet; 1812 Overture); and chamber music (3 string quartets) and songs
• Operas are performed constantly
• 3rd movement of string quartet #1: Andante cantabile. Intimate music with famous melody. Mixed meter in 2 and 3; links to nationalistic style
• took part in the inauguration ceremonies for New York's Carnegie Hall in 1891
- part of "The Mighty 5"; a group of 5 Russian composers
- a professional soldier
- no musical training to speak of, combined the sounds of Glinka and Dargomiesky in Boris Gudonov
- a story of a man whose conscious gradually weighs on him and he worries about his kids
- Coronation scene- use of whole tone scale and bells and everything Russian sounding, including the Russian recitative.
- Victor Heartmann: complained to Musorgsky that he didn't feel well and dies shortly after; M hears of his death and writes a suite of 10 piano pieces inspired by Victor's gallery of over 400 works and is meant to represent the viewer walking through the gallery; sveral paintings have their own motif (Pictures at an Exhibition, 1874); has unusual meters and rhythms of Russian music in 5 and 6
- Heartmann and Musorgsky discussed finding a new, uniquely Russian artistic language; M translated H's image of a gate with classical columns with Russian arches into a grand processional hymn that combines Western and Russian elements
• Night on Bald Mountain- Wrote a tone poem, spooky at night, unusual scales and chords and tone colors. Eerie plus polytonal music. Sonata form
- part of "The Mighty Five"
- Physician and Chemist
- unlike the rest of the Mighty 5, B was a devotee of chamber music and an admirer of Mendelssohn
- wrote Prince Igor; best known for his two string quartets (1879, 1881); Symphony No. 2 in B Minor (1876); and the symphonic sketch, In Central Asia (1880)
- seldom quotes Russian folk tunes, but his melodies reflect their spirit
- his chamber and orchestral works are characterized by songlike themes, transparent instrumental textures, modally tinged harmonies, and his original method of creating an entire movement from a single significant thematic idea
- wrote chopsticks for his niece; made famous by Liszt
- Russian piano virtuoso and prolific composer (1829-1894)
- Jewish converted Russian orthodox
- in 1859 he was stopped at the Russian border because being a musician wasn't considered a job; persuaded czars daughter to open a music school; founded the St. Petersburg Conservatory in 1862 with a program of training in the Western model; brought in other int'l professional musicians to teach
- participated in the movement to establish a classical repertoire by helping popularize the classics like the concertos of Beethoven and Mozart
- although R and other movement participants composed, the primary way to prove themselves as musicians shifted from performing their own works to playing and interpreting the classics
- pursued professional training in the Western mode
- Anton recognized internationality by inviting Korsakov to teach; combining nationalists with internationalists
- Anton Rubinstein's brother
- settles in Moscow and establishes the Moscow Conservatory in 1866; also an internationalist conservatory; his beliefs on Western training were similar to his brothers'
- the Rubinstein brothers' work raised the musicianship standard all over Russia and led to a strong tradition of Russian musicians and composers that continues today
- January 28, 1887 - December 20, 1982
- a Polish-American classical pianist who received international acclaim for his performances of music written by other composers; regarded as the greatest Chopin interpreter of his time
- widely considered one of the greatest pianists of the twentieth century; played in public for eight decades
- at 2 he had perfect pitch; by 4 he was a child prodigy
- Stravinsky and Villa-Lobo both dedicated a song to him; (Stravinsky's "Trois mouvements de Petrouchka")
- big fan of Enrique Granados
- composer in late 19th/early 20th century; Russian Symbolist
- had synaesthesia (linked specific colors to specific pitches)
- began by writing nocturnes, preludes, etudes, and mazurkas in the manner of Chopin; gradually absorbed the chromaticism of Liszt and Wagner; the octotonic scale and other exotic elements from Rimsky-Korsokov; and the juxtapositions of texture, scale and figuration from Debussy (and other Russian composers)
- wrote piano music, symphonies, and other orchestral works (Poem of Ecstasy; 1908) and Prometheus (1910)
- the changes in his musical language can be followed in his 10 piano sonatas; the last 5 (1912-1913) dispense with key signatures and tonality
- replaced conventional tonal harmony by choosing a complex chord (tonal center) for each piece; developed "atonal" style independently of Schoenberg
- of all composers in the classical tradition, Scriabin went the furthest away from common-practice tonal harmony
- the "referential chord" typically contains 1 or 2 tritones and is part of the octotonic scale (similar to Wagner's Tristan Chord) and do not invoke resolution (the MYSTIC CHORD)
- Scriabin creates a sense of harmonic progression by transposing and altering the referential chord; POST-TONALITY (Debussy, Falla, Janacek did this as well)
- Scriabin's process is demonstrated in "Vers la flamme, Op. 72"; a 1-movement tone poem for piano
- Prokofiev and Shostakovich were the 2 leading Soviet composers of the 20th century
- had a reputation before 1918 as a radical modernist; he combined dissonance with motoric rhythms
- left Russia after the Revolution and spent almost 20 years living and touring in North America and western Europe; returned to Russia in 1936 based on promises of commissions and performances from the Soviet regime
- wrote many pieces for films and ballets
- wrote "Peter and The Wolf" (1936) in response to the Soviet's demand for high-quality children's music
- P. reworked most of his theatrical pieces and film scores into concert works; the orchestral suites he drew from Romeo and Juliet and Lieutenant Kije were among his most popular works
- his repertoire of works conformed to socialist realism (using a realistic style [no abstraction, expressionism, or symbolism] in works that portrayed socialism in a positive light; music with relatively simple, accessible language, centered on melody, often drawing on folklike styles, and used for patriotic or inspirational subject matter)
- used Russian sounds: Russian guitars, bells, brass, and percussion
- WWII brought a relaxation in gov't control, and P. turned to absolute music in classical genres (the Piano Sonatas Nos. 6-8, 1939-44;the Fifth Symphony, 1944); these works are largely tonal with unexpected harmonic juxtapositions and alternations of dryness, lyricism, and motoric rhythms
- after WWII, authorities again cracked down in a 1948 resolution that condemned Prokofiev's works as "formalist"; he never achieved success for his work after the crackdown
- Russian 20th century composer; 1882-1971
- one of the most influential composers of all time
- started as a Russian nationalist and became a cosmopolitan
- Russian Period: contained his most popular works: the ballets "The Firebird" (1910), "Petrushka" (1910-11), and "The Rite of Spring (Le sacre du printemps)" (1911-13); all were commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev for the Ballets Russes in Paris; FIREBIRD: based on Russian folk tales, stems from the Russian nationalist tradition and from the exoticism of Rimsky-Korsakov, humans = diatonic music, supernatural creatures and places = octotonic or chromatic realms; PETRUSHKA: contains his characteristic blocks of static harmony with repetetive melodic and rhythmic patterns and abrupt shifts from one black to another, each group of dancers gets its own distinctive motif, thematic interruption, and a juxtaposition of diverse textures (like Musorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov); uses Russian, French, and Viennese melodies and heightens their differences; the "Petrushka Chord"; THE RITE OF SPRING: showcases his distinctive style, an imagined fertility ritual set in prehistoric Russia where a young girl is chosen for sacrifice and must dance ehrself to death, used PRIMITIVISM, the audience at the premier was shocked and riots ensued, later it became one of the most popular compositions of its time; each pulse is played with the same strength (negating beats vs offbeats), accented chords destroy any feeling of metrical regularity, a reduction of meter to pulsation was the element that conveyed primitivism, instead of motivic development Stravinsky uses repetition, unpredictable variation, and changes in timbre (learned from Glinka and R-K)
- Neoclassical Phase: Stravinsky had an epiphany while reworking a number of Pergolesi pieces that affected all of his furture works; in 1920 he completed "The Symphonies of Wine Instruments" which applied the methods from Rite of Spring to an entirely abstract piece; NEOCLASSICISM: a broad movement from the 1910-1950s in which composers revived, imitated, or evoked the styles, genres, and forms or pre-Romantic music, esp. that of the 18th century, then called Classic/"Baroque"; S. applied his distinct style to the classics to become "cosmopolitan"; S. has a more anti-Romantic tone; prefers absolute music to program music; SYMPHONY OF PSALMS (1930) - an objective rather than emotional sound palette; NEOTONAL; audiences found Stravinsky's neoclassical works easier to play and follow than Schoenberg's 12-tone pieces (like Brahms vs. Wagner)
- Serial Period: SERIAL MUSIC - music based on a series of 12 pitches that has been extended; S. adapted serial techniques in his music from 1953 on; "In Memoriam Dylan Thomas" (1954) - uses 5 notes; "Threni" (1957-8); "Movements" (1958-9); all use juxtaposed blocks, disrupted meter, and other S. traits, but the pitch content is increasingly chromatic; Stravinsky's STYLISTIC MARKERS allowed him to be recognizable no matter what genre of music he was playing
- Russian composer (1865-1936) of the late Russian Romantic period, music teacher and conductor
- taught by Rimsky-Korsakov
- served as director of the Saint Petersburg Conservatory between 1905 and 1928
- Shostakovich attended the conservatory while Glazunov was the director
- successfully reconciled nationalism and cosmopolitanism in Russian music;
- he had Balakirev's nationalism, Borodin's epic grandeur, Rimsky-K's orchestral virtuosity, & Tchaikovsky's lyricism
- Russian composer and pianist (1873-1943)
- classmate of Scriabin; both have their own distinct style
- his music combines influences from Western composers (Mendelssohn and Chopin) with Russian elements (Orthodox liturgical music and Tchaikovsky)
- known for his passionate, melodious style; offered something new but steeped in tradition; avoided harmonic innovations and focused on other elements of Romantic tradition, creating melodies and textures that sound BOTH fresh and familiar
- made his mark by doing the conventional in a way that no one had ever seen before
- Prelude in G Minor, Op. 23, No. 5
- 3 symphonies
- symphonic poem: "The Isle of the Dead" (1907)
- choral symphony: "The Bells" (1913)
- 24 PRELUDES FOR PIANO (1892-1910)
- 2 SETS OF "Etudes-Tableaux" (1911; 1916-17) for piano solo
- 4 PIANO CONCERTOS
- "Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini" for piano/orch. (1934)
Avante-garde French composer/pianist 1866-1925; sonatine bureaucratique
- first English composer in over 200 years to be internationally recognized; began the English musical renaissance
- Elgar's music doesn't include any folk-influences or other national traditions; Britain chose to adopt the "universal language" rather than create a distinctive "national style"
- harmonic style from Brahms and Wagner; used Wagner's system of leitmotives in his oratorios
- his oratorio: "The Dream of Gerontius" (1900) was based on a poem by John Henry Newman, and was influenced by Wagner's "Parsifal"; Elgar gives the orchestra an expressive role that is as important as the chorus
- "Enigma Variations" (1899) and 2 symphonies
- collected and published hundreds of folk songs (along with Cecil Sharp and other composers); used the folk melodies in his compositions: "Norfolk Rhapsodies" (1905-06) and "Five Variants of 'Dives and Lazarus'" (1939)
- the English musical renaissance took a nationalist turn; composers like Williams wanted to find a distinctive voice for English art music after centuries of foreign domination
- became close friends with Gustav Holst when they both attended the Royal Conservatory of Music
- 9 symphonies, other orchestral pieces, film scores, works for band, songs, operas, and many choral pieces
- drew inspiration from folk songs and English hymnody and early English composers like Tallis and Purcell
- studied with Ravel; influenced by Debussy, Bach, Handel
- wrote both art music and practical/utilitarian music, using elements from each tradition in the other
- musical editor of the new English Hymnal in 1904-6
- English folk tunes and modal harmonies of 16th century English composers gave him a NATIONAL quality
- "Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis" (1910)
- like his teacher Ravel, Williams found ways to write recognizably individual music that was still always national
1865-1957 finnish nationalist, late romantic period; folk music, continuous thematic development; Finlandia
French born, 1883-965; coined "organized sound," organizations of timbres + rythms; promoter of the theremin+electronic sounds
1899-1963 french composer; part of les six; music was very tonal but also used pandiatonism and later dodecaphonism
swiss composer 1892-1955; member of les six; futurist; "pacific 231" inspired by sound of steam locomotive; train enthusiast
Modernist french composer, member of les six, 1892-1974; influenced by jazz in harlem, made use of polytonality;
female member of les six, 1892-1983; film music
• La valse- impression of a ball during which a waltz is danced.
• Turns to Spanish music, especially in his piece "Bolero" a big sensational hit
• Combines Spanish with impressionistic sounds
• Neoclassicism- 3rd aspect of Ravel
Manuel de Falla
1876-1946 spanish nationalist; "midnight," "ritual fire dance," 12 beats plus saber dance, like bolero
under soviet union, 1906-1975; tonal but very strident; grotesque contrasts; "lady macbeth of Msensk" too formalist for stalin
British modernist 1913-1976, operas and film scores, champion of gay rights
1895-1963 German/American composer; gebrauchmusik for trombone in schools; quartal harmony juxtaposed with triadic/open 5th sound; tonal but non-diatonic, consonance and dissonance rankings
Vienna late 1800's; late romantic->atonalism; founder of dodecaphonism and first use of the tone row; used sprechstimme
- an opera composer in Berlin; an exponent of the New Objectivity (New Realism); opposed complexity and emotional intensity in favor of familiar elements, borrowing from popular music, Jazz, and Classical/Baroque procedures
- sympathetic to the political left; offered social commentary; entertained everyday people instead of the intellectual elites
- "Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny" (1930) - through satire in both libretto and music, Brecht and Weill sought to expose the failures of capitalism through the allegorical city of Mahagonny; Weill's score used elemnts of popular music and jazz; pit band included many jazz instruments
- "Die Dreigroschenoper" (1928) - "3-Penny Opera"; based on John Gay's "The Beggar's Opera"; music parodied rather than imitated American hit songs; juxtaposed 18th century ballad texts, European dance music, and American jazz
- after Nazi takeover, Weill fled to Paris and then to the US where he composed for Broadway; "Knickerbocker Holiday" (1938); "Lady in the Dark" (1940); "Lost in the Stars" (1948) about apartheid in South Africa; all contained the spirit of New Objectivity
Row=source for music rather than strict guideline; sentimentalistic; lyric suite dedicated to his mistress
Anton von Webern
Mahlerian romanticism+twelve-tone technique; pointillistic; strictly mathematical mind
1881-1945 hungarian nationalist; hungarian folk songs worked into his gebrauchstmusik; uses folk melodies, "hungarian" minor, strange rythms and scales; unique percussion sounds (tympani changing mid-song)
- Major Works: Bluebeard's Castle; The Miraculous Mandarin; Dance Suite; Concerto for Orchestra; Music for Strings; Percussion and Celesta; Mikrokosmos; 3 piano concertos, 2 violin concertos, 6 string quartets, 2 violin sonatas, 1 piano sonata, other piano works, songs, choral works, and numerous folk song arrangements
- English composer; his works were open to historical, ethnic, and non-Western styles and materials
- each instrument had rhythmic and metrical independence; partly derived from English Renaissance music
- admired Javanese gamelan music (drew on ideas from Asian influences); "The Piano Concerto" (1953-55) used Javanese textures and instrumental combinations; "Triple Concerto for violin, viola, and cello" (1979) used a Javanese melody with rippling figuration and gongs
(July 24, 1880 - July 15, 1959)
- a 20th century Swiss-born American composer
- began playing violin at 9; started composing shortly after
- studied music at the conservatory in Brussels
- In 1917 Bloch was became the first teacher of composition at Mannes College The New School for Music
- 1920-25: was appointed the first Musical Director of the newly formed Cleveland Institute of Music
- he was director of the San Francisco Conservatory of Music until 1930
- composed many concertos, string quartets, violin solos, viola solos, cello solos, vocal and choral works, symphonies, and one opera: "Macbeth", Opera in 3 acts, premiered in Geneva in 1909
- the most important Brazilian composer
- combined traditional Brazilian elements with modernist techniques
- he spent 1923-1930 in Paris; his music was highly praised and established him as the most prominent Latin American composer
- returned to Brazil in 1930 and, with gov't support, initiated a national effort to promote music in schools and through choral singing
- most characteristic work: the series of 14 pieces titled "Choros" (1920-28); titled after a type of popular music he played in the streets of Rio as a child; the pieces are for various media, from solo guitar or piano to orchestra and chorus; uses Brazilian rhythms and timbres and modernist techniques like polytonality and polyrhythms
- influenced by Bach; his series the nine "Bachianas brasileiras" (1930-45) pays tribute to Bach and the neo-classical trend of the times; each piece is a suite of 2-4 movements that combines elements of Baroque harmony, counterpoint, genres, and styles with Brazilian folk elements and long, lyrical, melodic lines;
- "Bachianas brasileiras No. 5" for solo soprano and 8 or more cellos is his most famous work
- the most important French composer born in the 20th cent.
- studied organ and composition at the Paris Conservatoire, was organist at St. Trinite in Paris from 1931 on, and became professor of harmony at the Conservatoire in 1941
- taught Boulez, Stockhausen, and Ton de Leeuw
- devout catholic; composed many pieces on religious subjects
- "Quatour pour la fin de temps": Quartet for the End of Time; for violin, clarinet, cello, and piano; written in a German prison camp in 1940-41 to be performed by Massaien and 3 fellow prisoners
- "Vingt regards sur l'Enfant-Jesus": Twenty Looks at the Infant Jesus, 1944; for piano
- "Saint Francis of Assisi": opera; 1975-83
- "Turangalila-symphonie" (1946-48)
- "Catalogue d'oiseaux" (1956-58); Catalogue of Birds; for piano
- his works typically present an experience of concentrated meditation on a few materials; rather than writing themes, he juxtaposes static ideas (like Debussy and Stravinsky)
- wrote down birdsongs in musical notation and used them in several compositions
- MODES OF LIMITED TRANSPOSITION: collections of notes, like the whole tone and octotonic scales, that do not change when they are transposed by certain intervals; these scales lack the differentiation of diatonic scales so they don't create a strong need for resolution (ideal for static blocks)
- treats rhythm as a matter of DURATION, not meter; meter is internalized in the human body, duration is in the realm of time, ruled by the divine; "medieval isorhythms"
- uses cyclic pitch and rhythmic repetition to inspire the feeling of contemplation
- used ADDED VALUES: like dotted eighth notes; produces irregular note lengths
- NONRETROGRADABLE RHTHYMS: rhythms that are the same backwards and forwards; palindrome rhythms; symbolize the eternal, that which exists out of time
- German trailblazer in electronic music 1928-2007; student of Messaien
- uses total serialism; puts the pitch row through a complex process of rotation; each note of the chromatic scale is linked to a certain duration and dynamic level, creating rows of duration and dynamics that rearrange along with the pitch rows;
- "Kreuzspiel" (1951): (Cross-Play) Stockhausen sets up these processes of change in pitch, duration, dynamic, and register so that they all cross at the same point in the middle of the piece
- an avant-garde composer; influenced by Cage and adoped "indeterminacy"
- invented new "system" of source-tape loop-synth-tape loop-master tape-speakers;
- gesang der junglinge=musique concrete, based off of the sound of a boy singing christmas carol
- Polish composer born in 1933
- composed "Threnody: to the Victims of Hiroshima" (1960); one of the best-known pieces based on texture and process
- a piece for 52 string instruments; the score gives few definite pulses or note values and instead measures time by seconds; each instrument has a unique part to play and each section focuses on a specific type of sound
- a new style of notation was used that shows the effect GRAPHICALLY but not imprecisely
- beginning is 4 instruments screeching; gives way to a section where each player rapidly repeats a series of sound effects; each player chooses one of four patterns and they can move at different speeds
- the exact sound of each instrument is INDETERMINATE, but the OVERALL AFFECT is essentially the same in each performance; ait creates a prickly, interesting texture
- student of Messaien; inspired by Messaien's "Mode de caleurs" to apply serialism to both pitch and duration
- "Structures" (1951-52): for two pianos; used the first of Massaien's three 12-note divisions as the pitch row, transformed both pitch and duration rows through retrograde, inversion, and other methods, and used dynamics and articulation to distinguish rows from one another; lacked readily perceived themes, a distinct rhythmic pulse, or a sense of progression; it's a sequence of unrepeated and unpredictable musical "events"
- his best known piece is "Le marteau sans maitre" (1953-55): "The Hammer without a Master"; fused his pointillist style and serial methods with sensitive musical realization of the text; 9 short movements that set verses from a cycle of surrealist poems by Rene Char; the ensemble is a different combo for each movement (like Schoenberg's "Pierrot lunaire")
- January 29, 1924 - May 8, 1990
- an Italian avant-garde composer of classical music; remains one of the most prominent composers of the 20th century
- "Variazioni canoniche sulla serie dell'op. 41 di A. Schönberg" (1950): the piece is based on the twelve-tone series of Arnold Schoenberg's Op. 41, including the Ode-to-Napoleon hexachord; also uses a six-element row of rhythmic values
- Nono's striking anti-fascist political commitment (and his membership with the Italian Resistance during WWII) distinguished him from his contemporaries (Boulez and Stockhausen); however, the three composers were the leaders of the New Music during the 1950s
- "Liebeslied" (1954) was written for Nono's wife-to-be, Nuria Schoenberg (daughter of Arnold Schoenberg)
- "Il canto sospeso" (The Suspended Song): a cantata for vocal soloists, choir, and orchestra; 1955-56; one of the most admired examples of serial composition from the 1950s, but has also excited controversy over the relationship between its political content and its compositional means
followed shostakovich; 1934-1998 russian; used twleve tone but moved to polystylistic technique (juxtaposition of old and new styles)
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