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41 terms

Language Science Unit 3

STUDY
PLAY
speed readers
simlar lengths of fixations & tunnel vision. Make few & more strategic fixations. Rely on background info. Good at gist; poor at details
Dual Route Theory for word recognition/ memory
visual (direct) route & phonetic (indirect) route
Visual (direct) route
read based on spelling patterns. aka "orthographuc processing." repeated exposure causes storage in memory
phonetic (indirect) route
recognize on basis of sound letter correspondence
connetionist model
1 route to word memory. word recognition is based on association b/w letters, letter sequences & meaning
Oral Language
lexically sparse; elliptical sentences; less coherent; contextualized
Written Language
lexically dense; high clausal density; well organized
Proposition
basic unit of meaning involving relationship b/w words. A way to narrow down meaning
Cohesion
grammatical & lexical links that tie propositions together w/in a text
Types of Cohesion
lexical, referential, substitution; conjunction
Lexical Cohesion
same word, synonym, superordinate term
Referential Cohesion
personal & demonstrative pronoun, definite article
Substitution Cohesion
Verb & noun
Conjunction Cohesion
Result
Schema
organized body of knowledge associated w/ a particular subject matter
3 Levels of Comprehension
text; text base; situation model
Text Base
taking propositions & forming some level of meaning. Proposition structure- link propositions together
Situational Model
take all knowledge, past experiences, vocab & form mental pictures in mind
Pragmatics
a set of rules related to language use w/in communicative context
Pragmatics used in 3 major communication skills
1) using language 4 different purposes 2) changing language according to needs of listener/ situation. 3) following rules for conversations
Gricean Maxims
quantity; quality; manner; relation/ relevance
quantity
say the right amount of info. not too much but not too little
quality
don't lie. don't make unsupported claims
manner
brief & orderly. no ambiguity
relation/ relevance
contributions relevant to subject of conversation
CT
x rays
MRI
magnetic field aligns poles of cells body nuclei
PET
radioisotopes are injected/ inhaled
fMRI
magnetic field. measures deoxygenated & oxygenated blood
MEG
high temporal resolution, real time waveforms. sensor helmet
Broca's aphasia
agrammatical speech (telegraphic)- expressive aphasia. no full sentences, short words, long pauses, few tense markers, function words missing
Wernicke's Aphasia
paragrammatical speech: fluent but lacks content (receptive aphsia); comprehension impaired
dementia
language disorders that results from progressive diffuse brain damage
right hemisphere communication disorders
result from injury to non dominant hemisphere may co occur w/ aphasia. marked by differences w/ pragmatics & abstract language
learning disability
category of disorders, CNS dysfunction, specific learning problem
Dyslexia
characterized by differences w/ accurate &/or fluent word recognition & by poor spelling & decoding abilities. Poor word recognition but good listening comprehension
specific comprehension deficit
language deficits in vocabulary, grammar, text level processing. good word recognition but poor listening comprehension
response to intervention
comprehensive approach for early ID & prevention of RD. involves a multi tiered process for ID & treatment
RTI Tier 1
general education universal screening of all students
RTI Tier 2
targeted interventions
RTI Tier 3
individual instruction. then special education if that doesn't work