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speed readers

simlar lengths of fixations & tunnel vision. Make few & more strategic fixations. Rely on background info. Good at gist; poor at details

Dual Route Theory for word recognition/ memory

visual (direct) route & phonetic (indirect) route

Visual (direct) route

read based on spelling patterns. aka "orthographuc processing." repeated exposure causes storage in memory

phonetic (indirect) route

recognize on basis of sound letter correspondence

connetionist model

1 route to word memory. word recognition is based on association b/w letters, letter sequences & meaning

Oral Language

lexically sparse; elliptical sentences; less coherent; contextualized

Written Language

lexically dense; high clausal density; well organized


basic unit of meaning involving relationship b/w words. A way to narrow down meaning


grammatical & lexical links that tie propositions together w/in a text

Types of Cohesion

lexical, referential, substitution; conjunction

Lexical Cohesion

same word, synonym, superordinate term

Referential Cohesion

personal & demonstrative pronoun, definite article

Substitution Cohesion

Verb & noun

Conjunction Cohesion



organized body of knowledge associated w/ a particular subject matter

3 Levels of Comprehension

text; text base; situation model

Text Base

taking propositions & forming some level of meaning. Proposition structure- link propositions together

Situational Model

take all knowledge, past experiences, vocab & form mental pictures in mind


a set of rules related to language use w/in communicative context

Pragmatics used in 3 major communication skills

1) using language 4 different purposes 2) changing language according to needs of listener/ situation. 3) following rules for conversations

Gricean Maxims

quantity; quality; manner; relation/ relevance


say the right amount of info. not too much but not too little


don't lie. don't make unsupported claims


brief & orderly. no ambiguity

relation/ relevance

contributions relevant to subject of conversation


magnetic field aligns poles of cells body nuclei


radioisotopes are injected/ inhaled


magnetic field. measures deoxygenated & oxygenated blood


high temporal resolution, real time waveforms. sensor helmet

Broca's aphasia

agrammatical speech (telegraphic)- expressive aphasia. no full sentences, short words, long pauses, few tense markers, function words missing

Wernicke's Aphasia

paragrammatical speech: fluent but lacks content (receptive aphsia); comprehension impaired


language disorders that results from progressive diffuse brain damage

right hemisphere communication disorders

result from injury to non dominant hemisphere may co occur w/ aphasia. marked by differences w/ pragmatics & abstract language

learning disability

category of disorders, CNS dysfunction, specific learning problem


characterized by differences w/ accurate &/or fluent word recognition & by poor spelling & decoding abilities. Poor word recognition but good listening comprehension

specific comprehension deficit

language deficits in vocabulary, grammar, text level processing. good word recognition but poor listening comprehension

response to intervention

comprehensive approach for early ID & prevention of RD. involves a multi tiered process for ID & treatment

RTI Tier 1

general education universal screening of all students

RTI Tier 2

targeted interventions

RTI Tier 3

individual instruction. then special education if that doesn't work

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