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women are more prone to declining height due to this; a condition in which the bones become brittle, fragile, and thin. Bones usually brake and it is harder for them to heal


A nearly universal change in eyesight during middle adulthood is the loss of near vision, called


Sometimes changes in vision are brought on by a disease called, , a condition where pressure in the fluid of the eye increases, either because the fluid cannot drain properly or because too much fluid is produced.


The primary sort of loss is for sounds of high frequency, a problem called

Female Climateric

starting about age 45, women enter a period, the transition from being able to bear children to being unable to do so.


the cesssation of menstruation

Type A Behavior Pattern

which is characterized by competitiveness, impatience, and a tendency toward frustration and hostility, are more susceptible to heart disease.
a) They engage in polyphasic activities - multiple activities carried out simultaneously.
b) They are easily angered and become verbally and nonverbally hostile if prevented from reaching their goals.
c) The key component that links this behavior and heart disease is hostility

Type B Behavior Pattern

which is characterized by noncompetitiveness, patience, and a lack of aggression, have less than half the risk of coronary disease that Type A people have.

Cross-sectional studies

tests people of different ages at the same point in time-clearly showed that older subjects scored less well than younger subjects on traditional IQ tests, results are usually stable and it takes a long time

Longitudinal Studies

in which the same people are studied periodically over a span of time, revealed different developmental patterns in intelligence.
a) Adults showed stable and even increasing IQ scores until mid-30s and some to mid-50s, then declined.
a) Because of repeated testing, some people remember some of the test items, called the practice effect.
b) Subjects leave or die during time span; those who remain may be healthier, more stable, and psychologically more positive than the people who dropped out,may overestimate the intelligence of older people.

IQ tests performance portion:

timed, reaction time slows with age, and results may be due to physical changes not cognitive changes

Fluid Intelligience

the ability to deal with new problems and situations; includes inductive reasoning, spatial oritentation, perceptial speed, and verbal memory

Crystallized Intelligence

the store of information, skills, and strategies that people have gained through education and prior experiences, and through their previous use of fluid intelligence; includes numerical and verbal abilites, such as solving a crossword puzzle or a mathematical problem, holds steady with age


are formal strategies for organizing material in ways that make it more likely to be remembered.

Male Climateric

the period of physical and psychological change relating to the reproductive system, occurs late middle age

Normative crisis model

1. The traditional approach to adult personality development is which views personality development in terms of fairly universal stages, tied to a sequence of age-related crises.

Life events model

which suggest that the timing of particular events in an adult's life, rather than age per se, determine the course of personality development.

Generativity versus stagnation

where people consider their contributions to family, community, work, and society.


means people focus on the triviality of their life, and feel they have made only a limited contribution to the world, that their presence has counted for little.


means looking beyond oneself to the continuation of one's life through others.
is guiding and encouraging future generations.

midlife transition

c. Between 40 and 45 people move into a period Levinson calls the or a time of questioning.

midlife crisis

a stage of uncertainty and indecision brought about by the realization that life is finite.

The Big Five model of personality

(1) Openness to experience - Closemindedness
(2) Conscientiousness - Undirectedness
(3) Extraversion - Introversion
(4) Agreeableness - Antagonism
(5) Neuroticism - Emotional stability

Openess to experience-closemindedness

a person's level of curiosity and interest in new experiences


a person's tendencies to be organized and responsible


how outgoing or shy a person is


how easygoing and helpful a person tends to be

Neuroticism-emotional stabilityq

degree to wich a person is moody, anxious, and self-critical

Empty nest syndrome

when parents have feelings of unhappiness, worry, loneliness, and depression due to their children's departure from home

Boomerang Children

There has been an increase in the number of young adults who come back to live in the homes of their middle-aged parents,

Sandwich Generation

Another trend is that middle-aged couples become because they must fulfill the needs of both their children and their aging parents.

Involved Grandparents

are actively engaged in grandparenting and have influence over their grandchildren's lives, tell kids how they should behave, babysit multiple times a week

Compationate Granparents

are more relaxed, and act as supporters and buddies to their grandchildren, visit and call often, bring on vacations

Remote Grandparents

and distant, and show little interest in their grandchildren, complain about kids behaviors

Cycle of Violence Hypothesis

abuse and neglect of children leads them to be predisposed to abusiveness as adults


which occurs when highly trained professionals experience dissatisfaction, disillusionment, frustration, and weariness from their jobs.

young old

are healthy and active

old old

have some health problems and difficulties

oldest old

are frail and need care


prejudice and discrimination directed at older people, is manifested in several ways

primary aging

aging that involves universal and irreversible changes that due to genetic programming occur as people get older

secondary aging

changes in physical and cognitive functioning that are due to illness, health habits. and other individual differences, but which are not due to increased age itself and are not inevitable

peripheral slowung hypothesis

suggests that overall processing speed declines in the peripheral nervous system

generalized slowing hypothesis

the theory that processing in all parts of the nervous sytem, including the brain, is less efficient


cloudy or opaque areas of the lens of the eye that interfere with passing ligh, frequently develop

macular degeneration

the most common cause of bllindness in people over the age os 60


most common mental disorder of old people, a broad category covering several diseases, each of which includes serious memory loss accompanied by declines in other mental functioning.
(1) Signs include declining memory, lessened intellectual abilities, and impaired judgment.

alzeheimer's disease

the most common form of dementia, which is a progressive brain disorder that produces loss of memory and confusion.
(a) The symptoms appear gradually.
(i) Unusual forgetfulness
(ii) Trouble recalling particular words during conversation
(iii) First recent memory goes, then older memories
(iv) Eventually, total confusion, inability to speak intelligibly or to recognize family and friends
(v) Toward the end, loss of muscle control and confinement to bed
(b) Alzheimer's runs in families.
(c) There is no cure for Alzheimer's.
(d) Because all Alzheimer patients are eventually bedridden, many end their lives in nursing homes.

genetic preprogramming theories of aging

suggest that our body;s DNA genetic code contains a built in time limit for the reproduction of human cells

wear and tear theories of aging

argue that the mechanical functions of the body simply wear out with age

life expectancy

the average age of death for members of a poulation has bean steadily increasing


modifiability of behavior, suggests that there is nothing fixed about the changes that may occur in intellectual abilities during late adulthood, use it or lose it

autobiographical memory

memories of information about one's own life frequently follows Pollyanna principle in which pleasant memories are more likely to be recalled than unpleasant memories


specialists who study aging


is the process of looking back over one's life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it.
a. Integrity comes when people feel they have realized and fulfilled the possibilities that have come their way.
b. Despair occurs when people feel dissatisfied with their life, and experience gloom, unhappiness, depression, anger, or the feeling that they have failed


which means that those in old age must redefine themselves in ways that do not relate to their work-roles or occupations.

Body transcedence bersus body preoccupation

a period in which people must learn to cope with and move beyond changes in physical capabilities as a result of aging

Ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation

in which the elderly must come to grips with their coming death

According to Levinson, people enter late adulthood after passing through a transition stage that typically occurs at about age 60 to 65

a. During this transition time people begin to view themselves as entering late adulthood.
b. People struggle with being "old," and facing illness and death of one's friends and loved ones.
c. People must struggle with the loss of power, respect, and authority.
d. People can serve as resources for younger people and be in a position to give advice.

disintegrated and disorganized personalities

are unable to accept aging and experience despair as the get older, often ending up in nursing homes or hopitalized

passive-dependent peronalities

lead lives filled with fear of falling ill, fear of the future, fear of their own inability to cope

defended personalities

seek to ward of aging and attempt to act young, exercising vigorously, and engaging in youthful activites that could lead to unrealistic expectations and disappointment

Integrated Personalities

cope comfortably with aging and accept becoming older with a sense of dignity

life review

look backward where people examine and evaluate their lives

disengagement theory

the period in late adulthood that marks a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels, people withdraw from the world and the world compels the elderly to withdraw (e.g., retirement).

activity theory

aging occurs when people maintain the interests, activities, and social interactions with which they were involved during middle age.

continuity theory

suggests that people simply need to maintain their desired level of involvement in society to maximize their sense of well-being and self-esteem.

selective optimization

where people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas; older people overcome changes and loses in old age

stage in the process of retirement

honeymoon period, disenchantment, reorientation, retirement routine, and termination

honeymoon period

in which former workers engage in a variety of activites such as travel that were previously hindered by full-time work


may occur when retirees conclude that retirement is not all they thought it would be


the stage where retirees reconsider their options and become engaged in new, more fulfilling activites

retirement routine

stage occurs when retirees come to grips with the realities of retirement and feel fulfilled in the new phase of life


final stage, where the retiree either goes back to work or health deteriorates so abdly that the person can no longer function independtely

adjustment to widowhood

preparation, grief and mourning, and adaptation


spouses prepare for the eventual death of the partner

grief and mourning

an immediate reaction to the death of a spuse, may last years or months, length depends on the degree of support and personality factors


where the widowed individual starts a new life

social support

assistance and comport supplies by another person or a network of caring, interested people

elder abuse

the physical or psychological mistreatment or neglect of elderly individuals

functional death

the absence of a heartbeat and breathing

brain death

where brain activity is measured has become the medical measure of death

Infant and Childhood deaths

the U.S. has a relatively high infant mortality rate.
a) Parents dealing with infant death have a very hard time, and depression is a common reaction.
b) Accidents are the most frequent cause of death in childhood but there are a substantial number of homicides (fourth leading cause of death between ages 1 and 9).

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