Structure of the Atom

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Atom
The basic building block of matter.
Subatomic particles
Three particles: protons, neutrons, electrons
Nucleus of the Atom
The center of the atom. Location of protons and neutrons.
Electron Cloud
Located outside of the nucleus. Electron are located here.
Energy Levels
Areas around the outside of the nucleus where electrons are located. There are up to 7 rings.
Proton
Positively charged subatomic particle located in the nucleus of the atom. Mass is 1 a.m.u.
neutron
A subatomic particle located in the nucleus that has no charge. Mass is 1 a.m.u.
electron
A negatively charged subatomic particle located outside of the nucleus. Mass is 0.005 a.m.u. or 1/2000 a.m.u.
Matter
anything that has mass and takes up space.
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of the atom.
Atomic Mass
The mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom.
Element
The basic unit of matter that consists of one type of atom.
Periodic Table of the Elements
A chart that shows 118 different types of atoms. 92 of the elements are naturally occurring.
What is the mass of a proton?
1 atomic mass unit
What is the mass of a neutron?
1 atomic mass unit
What is the mass of a electron?
0.005 atomic mass units or 1/2000 a.m.u.
Where are protons located in an atom?
Nucleus
Where are neutrons located in the atom?
Nucleus
Where are electrons located in the atom?
Outside the nucleus in the electron cloud
What is the electrical charge of proton?
Has a positive charged
What is the electrically charge of a neutron?
Has no charge.
What is the electrically charge of a electron?
Has a negative charge.
How do you determine the number of protons in an atom?
Atomic number equal the proton number.
How do you determine the number of electrons in a neutral atom?
Electron number equals proton number in a neutral atom. Proton number equals the atomic number. Therefore, electron number can be determined by looking up the atomic number for the element on the periodic table.
How would you calculate the neutrons in an atom?
Atomic mass minus the atomic number.
Which energy level is filled first?
first ring (orbital, shell) nearest the nucleus.
How many electrons can fit in the first energy level?
2 electrons
How many electrons can fit in the second energy level?
up to 8 electrons
How many electrons can fit in the third energy level?
up to 18 electrons
How many electrons can fit in the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh energy level?
up to 32 electrons
Valence electrons
The electrons that are in the outermost shell in the electron cloud. It is these electrons that form the chemical bonds between atoms in compounds.
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