A&P Chapter 8
Terms in this set (94)
Transmitters of nerve impulses toward the CNS; also known as sensory nerves.
The inability to convert one's thoughts into writing.
Without sensitivity to pain
Without feeling or sensation.
a localized dilation in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation of the artery; usually caused by hypertension or atherosclerosis
Inability to perform coordinated movements or use objects properly; not associated with sensory or motor impairment or paralysis.
without muscular coordination
The sensation an individual experiences prior to the onset of a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure. It may be a sensation of light or warmth and may precede the attack by hours or only a few seconds.
autonomic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary vital functions of the body, such as the activities involving the heart muscle, smooth muscles, and the glands.
The part of the nerve cell that transports nerve impulses away from the nerve cell body.
Abnormally slow movement
The stemlike portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemisphere with the spinal cord. Contains the midbrain, pons, & the medulla oblongata
a hole drilled into the skull using a form of drill
central nervous system
one of the two main divisions of the nervous system, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord
pain in the head; headache
the part of the brain responsible for coordinating voluntary muscular movement; located behind the brain stem
A brief interruption of brain function, usually with a loss of consciousness lasting for a few seconds. The transient loss of consciousness is usually caused by blunt trauma to the head.
small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain; better described as a "bruise" of the brain tissue occurring when the brain strikes the inner skull
the fluid flowing through the brain and around the spinal cord that protects them from physical blow or impact
The largest & uppermost part of the brain. It controls consciousness, memory, sensation, emotion, and voluntary movements.
a deep sleep in which the individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to external stimuli
a surgical incision into the cranium or skull
any deficiency or variation of the normal, as in a weakness deficit resulting from a cerebrovascular accident
transmitters of nerve impulses away from the CNS; also known as motor nerves
paralysis of one half of the body
an acute infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox, characterized by painful vesicular lesions along the path of a spinal nerve, also called shingles.
excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli, such as pain or touch
connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves to or toward motor nerves
a state of being sluggish; stupor
One of the three parts of the brain stem. the most essential part of the brain in that it contains the cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers of the brain.
The three layers of protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
A protective sheath that covers the axons of many nerves in the body. It acts as an electrical insulator and helps to speed the conduction of nerve impulses.
uncontrolled, sudden attacks of sleep
A cordlike bundle of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body.
the injection of a local anesthetic along the course of a nerve or nerves to eliminate sensation to the area supplied by the nerve(s); also called conduction anesthesia
severe, sharp, spasmlike pain that extends along the course of one or more nerves
inflammation of a nerve
the supporting tissue of the nervous system
a physician who specializes in treating the diseases and disorders of the nervous system
the study of the nervous system and its disorders
a nerve cell
a physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system
any surgery involving the nervous system
a type of neuroglial cell found in the interstitial tissue of the nervous system. Its dendrite projections coil around the axons of many neurons to form the myelin sheath
paralysis of the lower extremities and trunk, usually due to spinal cord injuries
nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body functions such as slowing the heart rate, increasing peristalsis of the intestines, increasing glandular secretions, and relaxing sphincters.
a sensation of numbness or tingling
peripheral nervous system
the part of the nervous system outside the CNS, consisting of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
cell that eats
a small cone-shaped structure thought to be involved in regulating the body's biological clock and that produces melatonin; also called the pineal gland.
a network of interwoven nerves
paralysis of all four extremities and the trunk of the body; caused by injury to the spinal cord at the level of the cervical vertebrae
inflammation of the sciatic nerve; characterized by pain along the course of the nerve, radiating through the thigh and down the back of the leg
nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body functions such as increasing the heart rate, constricting blood vessels, and raising the blood pressure
the space between the end of one nerve and the beginning of another, through which nerve impulses are transmitted
The part of the brain located between the cerebral hemispheres and the midbrain. Receives all sensory stimuli, except those of smell, and relays them to the cerebral cortex
an abnormal condition in which a clot develops in a blood vessel
a small hollow within the brain that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid
An injury to the cervical vertebrae and their supporting structures due to a sudden back-and-forth jerking movement of the head and neck. May occur as a result of an automobile being struck suddenly from the rear
Deterioration of a person's intellectual functioning. Progressive and extremely debilitating. It begins with minor memory loss and progressive to complete loss of mental, emotional, and physical functioning-frequently occurring in persons over 65 years of age
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
a severe weakening and wasting of the involved muscle groups, usually beginning with the hands and progressing to the shoulders, upper arms, and legs. It is caused by decreased nerve innervation to the muscle groups (ALS)
an absence of the brain and spinal cord at birth, a congenital disorder
a temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face following trauma to the face, an unknown infection, or a tumor pressing on the facial nerve rendering it paralyzed
carpal tunnel syndrome
a pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation and swelling of the tendons, causing intermittent or continuous pain that is greatest at night
a collective tern used to describe congenital brain damage that is permanent but not progressive. It is characterized by the child's lack of control of voluntary muscles
involves death of a specific portion of brain tissue, resulting from a decrease in blood flow to that area of the brain; also called stroke (CVA)
the inflammation of he brain or spinal cord tissue largely caused by a virus that enters the CNS when the person experiences a viral disease such as measles or mumps or through the bite of a mosquito or tick
a syndrome of recurring episodes of excessive irregular electrical activity of the brain resulting in involuntary muscle movements called seizures
grand mal seizure
an epileptic seizure characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness and by generalized involuntary muscular contraction, vacillating between rigid body extension and an alternating contracting and relaxing of muscles
petit mal seizure
small seizures in which there is a sudden temporary loss of consciousness lasting only a few seconds; also known as an absence seizure
a recurring, pulsating, vascular headache usually developing on one side of the head. It is characterized by a slow onset that my be preceded by an aura, during which a sensory disturbance occurs such as confusion or some visual interference
occurs typically two to three hours after falling asleep; described as extreme pain around one eye that wakens the person from sleep
occurs from long, endured contraction of the skeletal muscles around the face, scalp, upper back, and neck
a collection of blood below the dura mater and above the arachnoid layer of the meninges
an inherited neurological disease characterized by rapid, jerky, involuntary movements and increasing dementia due to the effects of the basal ganglia on the neurons
an abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that causes the ventricles of the brain to dilate, resulting in an increased head circumference in the infant with open fontanel(s)
a serious bacterial infection of the meninges- the covering of the brain and spinal cord- that can have residual debilitating effects or even a fatal outcome if not diagnosed and treated promptly with appropriate antibiotic therapy
a degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS attacking the myelin sheath in the spinal cord and brain, leaving it sclerosed or scarred and interrupting the flow of nerve impulses
a degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system- characterized by a gradual onset of symptoms, such as a stooped posture with the body flexed forward; a bowed head; a shuffling gait; pull-rolling gestures; and expressionless, masklike facial appearance; muffled speech and swallowing difficulty
a visualization of the cerebral vascular system via x-ray after the injection of radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel
measurement of electrical activity produced by the brain and recorded through electrodes placed on the scalp
the insertion of a hollow needle and stylet into the subarachnoid space, generally between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae below the level of the spinal cord under strict aseptic technique
noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures without use of radiation
used to evaluate cerebellar function and balance
the part of the brain located between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. It acts as a bridge to connect the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum to the upper portions of the brain
the convolutions or elevations on the cerebral cortex
the grooves that separate the gyri
outermost layer of the meninges
middle layer of the meninges that resembles a spider web
innermost layer of the meninges that is bound tightly to the surface of the brain and spinal cord