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RAWLS: distributive justice
Terms in this set (16)
give equal to equals...vague and hard to interpret
-equality vs merit? (legionnaire example)
Veil of Ignorance
similar to Donaldson Social Contract Theory, it is a form of social contract. Also called original position. Parties know nothing of their original positions in society, they tend to decide on principles for the distribution of rights, positions, and resources for their society....they render moot personal preferences and biases that are do not matter to justice or injustice.
A set of principles for choosing between social arrangements which determine the division of distributive shares.
it is a form of consequentialism. concerns the consequences of human action...all actions evaluated in how well they achieve desirable results. TELEOLOGICAL...concepts of right, wrong, and duty are subordinated to the concept of the end or purpose of an action. utilitarianism is opposed to ethical egoism which just wants to maximize my good. Utilitarianism wants to maximize the good of everyone. producing the greatest balance of pleasure or happiness against unhappiness in light of alternativ actions. Although not all utilitarians equate the greatest good as happiness.
greatest good for the greatest number
objections to utilitarianism
There is no reason in principle why the greater gains of some should not compensate for the lesser losses of others.
It is unable to account for justice. It concentrates on the consequences of an action for the majority, the employment of the principle of utility allows injustice for a small minority. For example: if overall goodness were maximized in the long run by making slaves of 2 percent of the population, the utilitarians would be forced to condone slavery.
The violation of liberty of a few is made right by the greater good shared my many.
deontological comes from Greek for duty, rules and principles that guide actions are important to the deontologist.
Kant: focuses on duty and universal rules to determining the right actions. Acts are good because they are done for the sake of what is right and not because of the consequences they might produce.
another way to approach deontology. It focuses not on individual decision making but rather on the general social principles that rational persons in ideal situations would agree to adopt.
Kant, Categorical Imperative
One ought to act such that the principle of one's act could become a universal law of human action in a world in which one would hope to live. (do onto others as you would have them to onto you...Golden Rule)
One ought to treat others as having intrinsic values in themselves and not merely as a means to reach one's ends.
criticisms to deontology
fanatics such as Hitler could believe that the rule to persecute Jews is a world rule to live by.
strict interpretations of deontological thinking allows no exceptions to a universal principle. This encourages moral rigidity and might fail to reflect the diversity of responses required by complex moral situations.
Social Contract Thought Experiences
Kant believes that the categorical imperative is something that all rational individuals can discover and agree upon.
RAWLS and LOCKE, try to establish universal principles of a just society through social contract thought experiences...to imagine that rational persons gather to formulate the principles or rules to govern political and social communities.
Some note that the principles picked could be consequential, not only deontological.
Locke "state of nature, natural rights"
natural rights...every person is born with, possesses, certain inalienable rights...(US Declaration of Independence). THey cannot be taken away. When rational persons meet to formulate principles to govern formation of social and political communities, they construct a social contract that is the basis for an agreement between themselves and the government to protect those natural rights.
RAWLS "veil of ignorance, original position"
He asks which principles of justice rational persons would formulate if they were behind a veil of ignorance...unable to predict which principles, if picked, will favor them personally, Rawls argues that they will be forced to choose principles fair to all.
Rawls principles of justice..Principle of Equal Liberty and Principle of Difference
1. Each person who is part of an institution or affected by an institution has an equal right to the most extensive liberty that is compatible with a like liberty for all.
2. Inequalities as they are defined by the institution are arbitrary unless it is reasonable to accept that these inequalities will work out to everyone's advantage, and provided that the positions and offices to which they attach are open to and may be gained by all...inequalities decided by merit in this case.
Social and economic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged persons and so that the attached offices are open to all under all conditions of equality of opportunity.
it is important because we have a preference for equality and not risk taking as humans behind the veil of ignorance... people are risk averse and will choose 50/50....the difference principle works to the benefit of everybody through the employing of inequality.
a person's character is critical in evaluating his or her actions. What is Mr. Johns does what he does for the sake of his high, multimillion dollar income? Does motivation matter? Does it only matter if he is doing all the right things?
Looking back to Aristotle: saying modern philosophers are overlooking the most fundamental aspects of moral behavior, namely a person's underlying moral character. Moral virtue for Aristotle is the rational control of one's desires. According to Aristotle, the development of virtue requires the cultivation of good habits.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Kant's Deontology Summary
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