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Biological Psychology Chapter 3- Test 2 Dr. Klein
Terms in this set (85)
Science of heredity
Made of DNA
Double-stranded molecule made of bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine attached to a suger called deoxyribose
Located on chromosomes
-Portion of DNA in a particulate sequence
What does DNA govern?
The building of proteins
-Control through RNA
-Particulate arrangement of bases determine protein synthesis
-Contains 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs
They have 2 complete sets of chromosomes
They have half the number of chromosomes of somatic cells
Cells have full count of 46 chromosomes
How are gametes formed?
What is "Crossing Over"?
Occurs during meiosis allowing genetic material to move from one chromosome of one pair to another
-Mixes the original genes inherited from the two parents and accounts for individual differences among species
Location of genes on chromosomes
Form a gene at a particular locus
Will cause a trait to appear in the offspring regardless of the trait on the other allele
Will cause a trait to appear only when the other allele is also recessive
Alleles are the same
Alleles are different
Genetically determined neurological disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of muscle control and mental functioning, with onset usually between the ages of 30-40.
-Dominate gene is located on human chromosomes 4
How do you know if a person will get Huntington's Disease?
Persons with 37 or less repetitions of the base sequence cytosine, adenine, quanine will develop HD, which is used as a test for the presence of this disease.
-The greater the number of base sequences above 37, the earlier the symptoms of HD are likely to appear.
Brain development begins at the point of ________ when the _______ is fertilized by a ________ resulting in the formation of a ______
conception; ovum; sperm; zygote
The first 8 weeks after the zygote divides
The remainder of the pregnancy after 8 weeks
What are the layer of cells in the embryo?
Forms the linings of the body (lungs)
Forms connective tissue (bones)
Forms the nervous systems as well as the epidermis and parts of the eyes and ears
The embryonic layers thicken to become what?
1. Neural Plate
2. Neural Folds
3. Neural tube
The name for the thickened ectodermal layer
Push up to for a space called the neural groove
Forms from the neural groove in 23 days. The brain and spinal card develop from it.
Neural Tube Defect (NTD)
When the neural tube fails to close
-May result in paralysis, limb deformities, and mental retardation.
-Result of NTD
-Can be prevented with the intake of folic acid
How can disorders such as anencephaly, spina bifida, and Down Syndrome be detected?
-All resulted from NTD
Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system
Epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus
-Does not divide
A layer of ectrodermal cells form on the inner surface of neural tube and divide to form what?
1. Ventricular Layer
2. Subventricular Layer
Divide into daughter cells,
-some go to marginal layer (outer surface of neural tube)
-Some go to intermediate layer of the neural tube
-Some become neurons or glial cells and some migrate back to the ventricular layer.
Daughter cells migrate to:
Layers between the intermediate layer and the marginal layer and form the cortical plate which develops into the cortex.
Formed between the intermediate and ventricular layer, becoming either glial cells or interneurons
Daughter cells remaining in the ventricular layers develop into ependymal cells. What are ependymal cells?
Forms the lining of the brain's cavities (ventricles and central canal of spinal cord
The formation of new neurons
-Few neurons are formed after birth in humans
-Exceptions are: cerebellar cells, olfactory receptor neurons, hippocampal neurons, and some cortical neurons. Allow for neuroplasticity
Migrating daughter cells are guided by ________ and _______
Radial glial cells and glycoproteins
Allow neurons to bind to other neurons or radial cells (a handhold)
Failures of the adequate production of glycoproteins may lead to _______
Cell migration dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia where abnormal distributions of __________ have been found in the brains of schizophrenic patients.
What are knockout mice?
Mice that have the gene of interest removed, thus producing a mutation
What are transgenic mice?
Mice that have a gene implanted into their genome to create a desired mutation.
Controlled by genetic programming
-A Purkinje cell will develop into its distinctive form even if grown in culture out of its environment
Other cells influence the final form
-Spinal motor neuron
Spinal Motor Neuron
Influenced by the motochord to become a spinal motor neuron
-Vitronectin is the chemical which directs the development of spinal motor neurons
Glial cells develop from the _______ layer. They also develop more after birth.
A major function of glial cells is what?
Myelination of neurons by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and by oligodendrocytes
Once a cell as differentiated, it must establish what?
Connections with other neurons
Neurons grow toward ________
Target cells (other neurons, organs)
Axon emerges from __________
growth cone (the swollen end of the developing neuron
Consists of spinelike extensions that appear to be searching
Axonal growth is giverened by __________
The growth of filopodia governed by chemicals
Chemicals that attract filopodia and are released from target cells
Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)
Produced by cells of the sympathetic nervous system
Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF)
Regulates visual development
Neurotrophins may _______ or ______ neurons
Serves as a map to neuron growth; when cells reach them, the growth cone adheres to that cell and the guidepost cells redirect axonal growth to target cells.
Determines the neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic neruon
The process of axons forming connections to the "correct address"
EX: Ganglion cell axons of the retina migrate to lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus
Genetically programmed cell death
-Embyronic cell death seems unrelated to establishment of neural circuity
-Fetal apoptosis seem related to neural circuity development.
What is Down Syndrome?
Caused by extra copy of chromosomes 21, hence called Trisomy 21
-Characterized by abnormal facial features, impairment in mental functioning, and abnormalities in several internal organs
-Associated with maternal age and perhaps paternal age
What is Phenylketonuria (PKU)?
Caused by inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.
-Treated by dietary restrictions
What is Fragile X Syndrome?
-Leading cause of inherited mental retardation, gene is called FMR-1
- Pronounced physical characteristics- long, narrow face, larger prominent ears and a prominent forehead.
-Behavioral and cognitive effects- hyperactivity, attention deficit, and mental retardation
What can prevent malnutrition?
May be treated and/or reserved with early and prolonged intervention
-May be prevented by nutritional counseling
-May be prevented by certain food additives (folic acid)
What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
Caused by the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy
-Characterized by diminished height, distinctive facial features, altered nose and eyelids, mental retardation, hyperactivity, and irritability.
What causes Neural Degeneration?
Trauma to the brain, tumors, infections, drugs, toxic substances
What are the types of Neural Degeneration?
1. Anterograde Deg.
2. Retrograde Deg.
3. Transneural Defg.
Process of breakdowns where degeneration occurs
-In adults usually does not occur in CNS (exception is olfactory system)
-Occurs in PNS
-occurs in neonatal and embryonic nervous system
___________ are present in mature PNS that promote cell regeneration absent in CNS
Neurons compensate for loss of neural connections by sending new axonal endings to vacated receptor sites (hippocampus and cortex)
----Repeated electrocovulsive shock has been found to promote collateral sprouting
Transplantation of Neural Tissue in Animal Research
Sunstantia Nigra damage has been reduced by implanting fetal tissue from donors into the damaged area
Transplantation of Neural Tissue in Human Research
Parkinson's disease patients have partial recovery of motor ability from transplanted fetal tissue
-These treatments seem to produce new dopaminergic synapses
Embryonic Stem Cells
An attempt to find an alternative to fetal tissue, these cells have the potential to develop into dopaminergic neurons.
Adult Stem Cells
Another potential source for transplants, the research is continuing on suitability
-Ethics: A major debate over the use of fetal cells exists, acceptance might be higher for adult stem cell use
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