Many Critics charge that the American marketing system causes to be higher than they would be under more "sensible" systems
A long-standing charge against intermediaries is that they mark up prices beyond the
value of their services
Marketers respond to charges of high advertising and promotion costs unnecessarily increasing retail prices by arguing that advertising adds
value by providing information about product availability
Deceptive practices fall into three groups; deceptive deceptive , deceptive .
pricing, promotion, packaging
Deceptive promotion differs from deceptive pricing in that deceptive promotion overstates the product's or .
A major step in regulating "unfair or deceptive business acts and practices" was the enactment of the in 1938
When critics claim that insurance, real state, and used cars are sold, not bought, they are making accusations of the use of .
Consumers Union, the nonprofit testing and information organization. publishes to assist the consumer in choosing products and encourage businesses to eliminate product flaws
Critics have charged that some companies intentionally maufacture their products with materials or components that cause the product to need to be replaced before it actually should need replacement. What is this called?
Planned obsloescennce might involve all of the following except which one?
the use of unsafe materials
Marketers respond to charges of planned obsolescennce with all of the following except which one?
The product will eventually wear out anyway.
Critics claim that companies in the industries introduced planned streams of new products that make older models obsolete, a form of planned obsolescence that harms consumers
consumer electronics and computer
Critics who believe that the American marketing system poorly serves disadvantaged consumers claim that
the pay more for inferior goods
The presence of in low-income neighborhoods makes a big difference in keeping prices down
large national chain stores
When major chain retailers avoid placing stores in disadvantaged neighborhoods, they are likely to be accused of hte discriminatory practice
Critics of the American economic marketing system have charged that marketers have created a culture in which people are judged by what
A drive for wealth and possessions hit new highs in the , when phrases such as "greed is good" and "shop till you drop" seemed to charactersize the times
Businsses hire firms to use mass media to create materialistic models of the good life
Marketers are most effective when they appeal to rather than when they .
existing wants; attempt to create new ones
The overselling of private good results in , such as cars causing traffic jams, air pollution, injuries, and deaths
To restore the balance between private and public goods, producers could be required to bear the full costs of their operations
In response to charges of , marketers point out that advertising makes much of television and radio free to users and also keeps down the cost of magazines and newspapers
Critics charge that a company's marketing practices can harm other companies and reduce competition among companies. Problems involved include all of the following except which one?
marketing practices that confuse consumers
which of the following is most responsible for the shrinking number of competitors in almost every major industry?
acquisition of competitiors
Large marketing companies can use patents and heavy promotion spending to
set up barriers for others willing to enter the industry
Which of the following is not a potential advantage of the practice of acquisition
Acquisitions require little government oversight
Setting prices below cost, threatening to cut off business with suppliers, and discouraging the purchase of a competitor's products are all examples of
The first organized consumer movement in the US took place early 1990s. It was fueled by all of the following conditions excepts which one?
Ralph Nader is most closely associated with which of the following
the consumerism movement of 1960s
is an organized movement of citizens and government agencies to improve the rights and power of buyers in relation to sellers
Which of the following is not a traditional sellers' right?
the right to promote any product to any audience
Many people believe that the balance of power in the buyer-seller relationship lies on the seller's side. Critics believe that buyers have too little education, protection, and to make wise decisions when facing sophisticated sellers.
Consumer advocates call for all of the following additional consumer rights except which one?
The right to be protected from unwanted marketing messages
Proposals related to the consumer's right to include controlling the ingredients that go into certain products and putting consumer representatives on company boards to speak for consumer interests.
influence products and marketing practices in ways that will improve the "quality of life"
is an organized movement of concerned citizens and government agencies to protect and improve people's living environment
The in the US came about because of concern for the loss of the atmosphere's ozone layer, toxic waters, litter, and the damage caused by strip mining and forest depletion
first wave of modern environmentalism
is a management approach that involves developing strategies that both sustain the environment and produce profits for the company
Environmental sustainability includes
protecting the environment and extracting environmental materials to their lowest levels
Companies emphasizing are developing "green marketing" programs that develop ecologically safer products, recyclable and biodegradable packaging, more energy-efficient operations, and better pollution controls.
Minimizing pollution from production and all environmental impacts throughout the full products life cycle is called
Design for environment (DFE) involnes thinking ahead in the design stage to create products that are easier to reuse, recycle or
What do most companies today focus on when it comes to protecting the environment
investing heavily in pollution prevention
Xavier Rentals Inc. is now looking into to future and working internally on the third level of environmental sustainability, which is called
new clean technology
As international trade barriers come down and global marketers expand, environmental issues are
having impact on international trade.
The philosophy of holds that a company's marketing should support the best long-run performance of the marketing system
Innovative marketing is
A, B, and C
A principle of enlightened marketing;
based on the consumer's point of view;
the attempt to continuously seek product and marketing improvements
Which form of enlightened marketing requires that a company seek real product and marketing improvements
Some firms define their purpose in narrow product terms. Others define their purpose in broad social terms follow
When an enlightened company makes marketing decisions by considering consumers' wants and interests, the company's requirements, and society's long-run interests, it is practicing marketing
A company that makes products that give high immediate satisfaction but may hurt consumers in the long run makes products
In societal marketing, the ideal goal for companies is to turn all their products into ones
The challenge for marketers of which type of product is to add long-run benefits without reducing the product's pleasing qualities
The challenge for markers of which type of product is to add some pleasing qualities so that it will become more desirable in the consumers' minds?
Companies must decide what principle they should use as a guide on issues of ethics and social responsibility. Which of the following is not a common philosophy to accomplish this end?
Let society decide
One major issue in foreign trade is bribery. Bribery and corruption are common in all of the following countries except
The American Marketing Association (AMA) has created a code of ethics that includes all but which of the following ethical values
Firms that play it safe and do not enter the global market are likely to lose their chances to enter other markets
and risk losing their home markets
A is one that, by operating in more than one country, contains marketing, production, research and development, and financial advantages that are not available to purely domestic competitors.
Which of the following is not one of the major decisions a company faces in international marketing?
deciding how to set standardized prices
A is a limit on the amount of goods that an importing country will accept in certain product categories
An serves to limit the amount of foreign exchange and the exchange rate against other currencies
The is a 60 year old treaty designed to promote world trade by reducing tariffs and other current international trade barriers
Concluding in 1994 the Uruguay Round reduced trade barriers, set international standards for trade and established the to enforce GATT rules
Which of the following reduced the world's merchandise traffis by 30% toughened international protection of copyrights and trademarks and has been extended to cover trade in agriculture and a wide range of services
is a group of nations organized to work toward common goals in the regulation of international trade
An economic community
The European Union and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) are examples of
Which of the following is true regarding economic communities
Tariffs are typically lower or nonexistent between countries in the community
There is concern that through the , lower barriers inside Europe will create only thicker outside walls
Which of the following is an advantage created by the adoption of the euro?
European countries with previously weak currencies are more attractive markets
What is the name of the single agreement that created a market of 443 million people and will eliminate all trade barriers and investment restrictions among the US, Mexico, and Canada?
Given the apparent success of NAFTA, talks have been underway since 1994 to establish a free trade zone called . This zone would include 34 countries stretching from the Bering Strait to Cape Horn
Mercusor and CAN have agreed to unite, creating , which will make up the largest trading block after NAFTA and the European Union
The two key economic factors reflecting a country's attractiveness as s market are its industrial structure and its
In a , the vast majority of people engage in simple agriculture and consume most of their output
are major exporters of manufactured goods, services, and investment funds. They trade goods among themselves and export them to other types of economies for raw materials and semi-finished goods.
In an economy, manufacutring accounts for 10-20% of the country's economy. This type of economy typically has a new rich class and a small but growing middle class, both demanding new types of imported goods.
A economy is poor in some ways but rich in one or more natural resources responsible for creating most of its exporting revenue
Which of the following types of economies is most likely to have significant numbers of low-income, medium-income, and high-income households?
At least four political-legal factors should be considered in deciding whether to do business in a given country. which is not one of these factors?
Whether a state religion is enforced
All of the following are methods of countertrade except which one?
paying in the seller's currency without further obligation
What type of countertrade occurs when a seller sells a plant, equipment, or technology to another country and agrees to take payment in the resulting products?
It is important to understand how business norms vary form country to country. For example, like to sit or stand very close to each other when they talk business- in fact, nose-to-nose
Why might Asian businesspeople be offended by the typical bargaining tactics of American executives
Asian executives prefer to start business meetings with polite converstations
Which of the following is an example of how American culture is being exported to the world's countries
the expansion of Wal-Mart Supercenters
has ben singled out by globalization protestors all over the world, especially when anti-American sentiment peaks
All of the above:
Which of the following would a defender of globalization most likely use as an example to argue that concerns of Americanization are overblown and that globalization is indeed a two-way street
the growing number of IKEA furniture stores
Which type of business is least likely to find it necessary to enter international markets in order to survive
Small, local businesses
Which of the following is a factor that is likely to push a company to decide not to enter international markets
the company would have to redesign its products
Several factors might draw a company into the international arena. What is not one of these factors?
Managers are unsure of the effect of regulations and the political environments of other countries
Of the following which is the least critical decision a company should make before going abroad
how many people it wants to employ
Demographic characteristics, geographic characteristics, economic factors, socioculture factors and political and legal factors all help a company
determine a market's potential
Which of the following is a socioculture factor that a company should consider before deciding to enter an international market?
consumer lifestyles, beliefs, and values
Which of the following is a political and legal factor that a company should consider before deciding to enter an international market
monetary and trade regulations
Which is not a mode of entry that companies can use when they have decided to sell in a foreign country
When entering a foreign market, companies typically start
with , working through independent international marketing intermediaries
Sellers may eventually move into , whereby they handle their own exports. The investment and risk are somewhat greater in this strategy
A company can conduct exporting in several ways. Which is not one of these ways?
It can work through independent international marketing intermediaries
A gives the seller more presence and program control in the foreign market and often serves as a display center customer service center
is a method of entering a foreign market that involves a company coming together with a foreign company to produce or market products and services
Through , an organization in the foreign market buys the right to use a company's manufacturing process, patent, trade secret, or other item of value.
Which of the following is not a potential disadvantage of licensing
The company has less control over the licensee than it would over its own operations
ventures consist of one company joining forces with foreign investors to create a local business in which they share ownership and control
involves entering a foreign market by developing foreign-based assembly or manufacturing facilities
Which of the following represents the biggest involvement of company can take in a foreign market
Lower costs in the form of cheaper labor or raw materials, foreign government investments incentives, foreign savings, and the opportunity to improve the company image are all factors that would likely lead to a company to in a foreign market
make a direct investment
means selling largely the same products and using the same marketing approaches worldwide
Standardized global marketing
means adjusting the marketing strategy and mix elements to each international target market
Adapted global marketing
The concept holds that marketing programs will be more effective when tailored to the unique needs of each targeted customer group
Which of the following is not one of the five stragtegies for adapting product and marketing communications to a global market?
Regadless of how companies go about pricing their products, their foreign prices will probably be their domestic prices
The two major links between the seller and the final buyer of channels between nations and channels within nations make up a
World product groups, geographic organizations, and international subsidiaries are all options for organizing
In a , executives are trained in worldwide operations, not just domestic or international
What are the two goals of direct marketing?
To obtain an immediate response and build a lasting customer relationship
Today, direct marketing relies heavily on database technologies and the Internet. Early direct marketers primarily used direct mailers, telemarketing, and
Which of the following is an advantage of direct marketing for sellers
It can give sellers access to buyers outside their local markets
A comprehensive database is a tremendous tool for the direct marketer. It should contain geographic, demographic, psychographic and ____ data
Information about a customer's age, income, and family make-up would all be considered _____ in a customer database
Information about a customer's activities and interests would all be considered ____ in a customer database
Which one of the following purposes is not a common use of direct marketing database?
gather marketing intelligence about competitors
Which of the following is a primary benefit to consumers from database marketing?
more offers closely matched to their interests
Which kind of marketing involves sending an offer, announcement, reminder, or other item to a person at a particular address?
Catalogs, brochures, CDs, and DVs are all examples of which type of marketing?
Which of the following forms of direct marketing is least likely to experience significant growth within the next few years?
Which of the following is an advantage of printed catalogs over digital catalogs?
a stronger emotional connection with customers
Which of the following is an advantage of a well-designed and targeted telemarketing plan?
Instead of making print catalogs obsolete, ______ has changed their role to that of a brand-bulidng device
Which of the following has been limited in recent years by the implementation of the National Do-Not-Call Registry
unsolicited outbound telephone marketing by businesses
Which of the following is the most accurate name for a 30min television advertising program marketing a single product
What are two major forms of direct-response television marketing?
direct-response television advertising and infomercials
Direct-response advertisements always contain ________, making it easier for marketers to gauge the effectiveness of their sales pitches
a 1-800 number or Web address
Why have direct-response television commercials seen an increase in popularity in recent years?
Return on advertising investment can be easily measured
A television program or entire channel dedicated to selling goods and services is known as a
home shopping channel
As consumers become more and more comfortable with technology, many companies are using information and ordering machines called ______ in stores, airports and other locations
Which of the following is not one of the reasons that many marketers view mobile phones as the next big marketing medium
Unlike traditional telemarketing, mobile phone marketing is intially appealing to most cell phone users
Ring-tone giveaways, mobile games, and ad-supported content to text-in contests and sweepstakes are all examples of _______ marketing
Which of the following is the least effective way for marketers to avoid angering already ad-weary consumers when using a new direct marketing technology, such as mobile phones?
begin by sending unsolicited messages and then move to permission-based programs
The ____ enables consumers and companies to access and share huge amounts of information with just a few mouse clicks
______ is a vast public web of computer networks that connect users of all types all around the world to each other.
New York Times on the Web, ESPN.com and Encyclopedia Britannica Online provide financial, research, and other information. They are called____
Search engines, portals, e-tailers, and content sites are examples of _____, selling products and services directly to final buyers via the Internet
In recent years, many brick-and-mortar firms eventually because ____ in response to ____.
click-and mortar firms; click-only competitors' actions
Which of the following is not one of the four major online marketing domains?
B2D (business to door)
The popular press has paid the most attention to ______ online marketing- the online selling of goods and services to final consumers
eBay and Amazon.com Auctions, as well as other auction sites, other popular marketspaces for online exchange of goods and information. These online companies are examples of _____ online marketing
Which of the following is a drawback of advertising on or attempting to influence content on a blog
The content of a blog is difficult to control
_____ online marketing sites are online exchanges in which consumers search out sellers, learn about their offers, and initiate purchases, sometimes even driving transaction terms.
When consumers can drive transactions with businesses,what type of online marketing is being used?
Which of the following is not one of the ways a company can conduct online marketing?
calling their customers to complete surveys
_______ are designed to build customers goodwill and to supplement other sales channels, rather than to sell the company's products directly?
Corporate Web sites
_____ are designed to engage consumers in interactions that will move them closer to a direct purchase or other marketing outcome
Marketing Web sites
To attract new visitors and to encourage revisits, online marketers should pay close attention to the seven Cs of effective Web site design. Which of the following is not one of the seven Cs?
Customer: the way the customer is given incentives to use the Web site
Of the seven Cs of effective Web site design, _____ refers to the ways that the site enables user-to-user communication
According to the seven Cs of effective Web site design, a Website's capability to enable commercial transactions is its level of _______
Marketers of which of the following types of products would likely find it most challenging to attract visitors to a brand or marketing Web site
Based on information in your text, which of the following is the least likely way a marketer might promote a company's Web site
outbound telephone marketing
______ are online ads that pop up between screen changes on Web site, especially while a new screen is loading
Which of the following types of ads can users block through the use of applications developed by Web browser providers
Display ads that use eye-catching techniques such as float, fly, and snapback are called______
When companies work with each other online and offline to promote each other, they are creating ____
alliance and affiliate programs
Online communities where people socialize or exchange information and opinions are called _____
online social networks
Which of the following is a challenge of marketing through online social networks
Users may resent an intrusive marketing message
According to your textbook, what is the most likely future for online marketing
Online marketing will remain an important approach in an integrated marketing mix
Some direct marketers have been accused of taking advantage of buyers; for example, so-called heat merchants use ____ intended to mislead buyers
Which of the following is a type of identity theft that uses deceptive e-mails and fraudulent web sites to fool consumers into revealing their personal data?
Which of the following is not a deceptive or fraud concern for Internet users and marketers
To prevent privacy abuses and curb excessive marketing, federal legislation has been enacted or considered to regulate all of the following except______
collection of online consumer information
What happened in response to the finding that many Web sites were collecting personal information from children without disclosure or parental permission
Congress passed the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act
These employees are well-educated, well-trained professionals who work to build and maintain long-term customer relationships by listening to their customers, assessing customer needs, and organizing the company's efforts to solve customer problems. Who are these employees?
All of the above;
account development reps
Which of the following communication and promotion tools involves direct connections with customers aimed toward building customer-unique value and lasting relationships
A _______ is an individual acting for a company by performing one or more of the following activities: prospecting, communicating, servicing, and information gathering
_______ involves two-way, personal communication between salespeople and individual customers-whether face-to-face, by telephone, through video or Web conferences, or by other means
Which of the following steps is a company least likely to take to help bring its marketing and sales functions closer together
recognize sales and marketing as separate functions
What is the role of a chief revenue, or chief revenue, or chief customer, officer?
To oversee both marketing and sales
When a firm sets out to analyze, plan, implement, and control sales force activities through sales force management, it is undertaking ______
sales force management
Of the three typical types of sales force structures, which one is often supported by many levels of sales management positions in specific geographic areas?
Which of the following is not an advantage of a territorial sales force structure
Salespeople develop in-depth knowledge of a product line
Which of the following is not a disadvantage of a product sales force structure
increased customer delivery time
After a company has determined its sales force structure, it is ready to determine what kind of _____ it needs
sales force size
Members of a company's ______ conduct business from their offices through the telephone, the Internet, or visits from customers
inside sales force
To reduce time demands on their outside sales forces, many companies have increased the size of their inside sales forces, which include technical support people, sales assistants, and _______
Which of the following is the growing trend of using a group of people from sales, marketing, engineering, finance, technical support, and even upper management to service large, complex accounts
In many cases today, a major reason to adopt team selling stems form changes in ______
customers' buying organizations
Which of the following is not a pitfall or disadvantage of team selling?
In the long run, team selling ties up more time and increases overall costs
Of the following, which is the most necessary ingredient for any successful sales force organization
the recruitment and selection of good salespeople
All of the following are problems associated with the poor selection of salespeople except which one
less office support
According to research, which of the following is one of the four key talents a successful salesperson should possess
disciplined work style
A salesperson's motivation and discipline mean little unless they result in ______
closing more sales and building better customer relationships
Why are many companies using e-learning to conduct sales training programs
E-learning cuts training costs
A salesperson's compensation plan is typically made up of several elements-a fixed amount, ________, expenses, and fringe benefits
a variable amount
Which of the following is not one of the four basic types of compensation plans
commission plus bonus
Which sales management tool shows a salesperson which customers and prospects to see during the next 12 months and in which months, as well as which activities to carry out
annual call plan
Companies are always looking for ways to increase selling time. All of the following are ways to save time to accomplish this goal except which one?
reduce the number of customers each sales rep should see.
Which of the following is not a part of sales force automation systems frequently used by salespeople?
time-and-duty analysis software
Three common techniques sales managers use to boost sales force morale include the organizational climate, sales quota, and positive
Your sales force is able to easily assess their opportunities within the firm. This feeling describes your firm's ______
Which of the following is a potential drawback of using Web-based technologies to make sales presentations and service accounts
the system can intimidate some clients and salespeople, making them uncomfortable with the process
Management sets standards that state the amount each salesperson should sell and how sales should be divided among the company's products with _______
Which of the following is an example of a positive incentive that management might use to motivate the sales force
Of the following tools that are commonly used, which one is the most important for management to use in evaluating salespeople
The selling process consists of several steps that the salesperson must master, focusing on the goals of ______ and _______ from them
getting new customers; obtaining orders
Prospecting is the step in the selling process in which the salesperson
identifies qualified potential customers
The prospecting step in the selling process includes identifying and ______ the prospects
Which of the following is the least relevant characteristics that a salesperson should consider when qualifying a prospect
longevity in the market
The salesperson meets the customer for the first time in the ______ step of the selling process
Which type of salesperson fits best with today's relationships marketing focus and solutions approach
The qualities that buyers like most in salespeople include empathy, honesty, dependability, thoroughness, follow-through and
The qualities buyers' dislike most in salespeople include all except which of the following
being too early for an appointment
Salespeople can now take advantage of technologies such as CDs, DVDs, handheld computers, and laptop computers to enhance the _____ step of the selling process.
presentation and demonstration
A salesperson should seek out hidden objections, ask the buyer to clarify any objections, take objections as opportunities to provide more information, and ________
turn the objections into reasons for buying
The step of _____ is difficult for some salespeople because they lack confidence, feel guilty about asking for an order, or may not recognize the right time to ask for an order
closing the sale
Salespeople should be trained in recognizing ______ signals from the buyer, which can include physical actions such as leaning forward and nodding or questions about prices and credit terms
Which step in the sales process is key if the salesperson wants to ensure customer satisfaction and repeat business
As described in your text, the seven steps of the selling process are all ______ oriented
______ consists of short-term incentives to encourage the purchase of sale of a product or service. This offers reasons to buy it now
Pressure to increase current sales, less differentiated brands, declining advertising efficiency, and increasingly deal-oriented customers are all factors contributing to the
growth of sales promotion
In general, rather than creating only short-term sales or temporary brand switching, ____ should help to reinforce the product's position and build long-term customer relationships
Of the main consumer promotion tools, which is the most effective for introducing a new product or creating excitement for an existing one
______ offer consumers savings off the regular price of a product, with the reduced price marked by the producer directly on the label of package
Manufacturers direct more sales promotion dollars toward ____ than to _____
retailers and wholesalers; consumers
Manufacturers may offer an _______ in return for the retailer's agreement to feature the manufacturer's products in some way