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closely related organisms that share similar characteristics and can reproduce among themselves


a waxy, protective layer secreted by cells onto the surface of the plant


chemical compound that plants can make out of sugar

vascular plant

plants that have tubelike structures that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plant

nonvascular plant

plants that do not have these tubelike structures and use other ways to move water and substances; that absorb water and other substances directly through its cell walls instead of through tubelike structrues


a waterproof reproductive cell that can grow into a new organism

pioneer species

organisms that are the first to grow in new or disturbed areas


threadlike structures that anchor nonvascular plants where they grow


plant embryo and food supply in a protective coating


small openings in the epidermis of leaves that allow carbon dioxide, water and oxygen to enter and exit from a leaf

guard cell

each stomata has two guard cells that open and close it


tissue that is made up of hollow, tubular cells that are stacked on top of one another to form a vessel; transport water and dissolved substances from the roots throughout the plant


plant tissue made up of tubular cells that are stacked to form tubes; move food from where it is made to where it is used or stored


tissue that produces most of the new xylem and phloem cells


vascular plants that produce seeds which aren't protected by fruit; produce seeds on the surface of female reproductive structures, such as cones


vascular plants that flower and produce fruit with one or more seeds, with the fruit developing from a part of parts of one or more flowers


angiosperms that have one cotyledon inside their seeds {corn, rice, wheat, barley, bananas, pineapples, dates, lilies, orchids }


angiosperms that have two cotyledons inside their seeds {peanuts, green beans, peas, apples, organes, maple oak and elm}

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