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History 105 Mid-term Term List
Terms in this set (28)
Joan of Arc
Early 1400s. Illiterate French peasant woman who became convinced that God had chosen her to lead France to victory in the Hundred Years War against England. She became a rallying point for the French and a symbol of growing national consciousness. Though she turned the tide of the war, the French king Charles VII did little to save her after she was captured by the Burgundians. She was burned at the stake as a heretic
Hundred Years War
1337-1453. War fought between England and France. Both countries were led by monarchies attempting to achieve greater centralization. England's greater degree of centralization as well as a superior military structure gave England the early advantage under the leadership of Edward III. Fighting during the Hundred Years War was not continuous and was halted repeatedly by peace treaties, internal revolts or even the Black Death. Later, English King Henry V briefly succeeded in uniting the English and French thrones. Joan of Arc helped turn the tide though, and by 1453, the English had largely been driven from France
Peasant revolt in France spurred by the mistreatment meted out to French peasants by French nobles after the near collapse of central authority in France following the capture of King John the Good by the English at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. Like most peasant revolts that we have studied in this course, the Jacquerie was brutally crushed
Mid 14th century. Probably the bubonic plague (a bacteriological infection carried by rats). This terrible plague killed 40% of Europe's population. Europeans explained the plague as divine retribution for sins, a product of "Imbalanced" bodily humors, the result of evil magic spells, or fumes from hell released by earthquakes. Indirect results of the plague were increased urbanization and the decline in power of the nobility
Strongly associated with the Black Death. This sect's members traveled from town to town beating themselves and each other as a form of penance for sins. Their actions in fact may have made the plague worse as they spread it in their travels. They were also often associated with attacks against Jews--whom the Flagellants accused of causing the disease with magic.
Boniface VIII and Guillaume de Nogret
A strong proponent of a powerful secular Papacy, Boniface, for "True Christians" such as Dante, symbolized all that was wrong with a church that was too obsessed with worldly wealth and power. Boniface lost a confrontation with King Philip the Fair of France and died some months after being badly beaten (and nearly hanged) by a group of French knights led by Guillaume de Nogaret. Nogaret was Philip's leading advisor and military expert. He was excommunicated for his actions, but Philip later forced Pope Clement V to rescind Nogaret's excommunication.
1378-1417. After the Papacy had returned to Rome after nearly 70 years at Avignon, a dispute broke out Between French and Italian cardinals over the selection of Pope Urban VI. The French cardinals, supported by the French monarchy, established a second papal line at Avignon. Subsequent efforts to end the division failed--most disastrously with the Council of Pisa in 1409-1410 that produced yet a third papal line! The split was finally ended with the Council of Constance (1414-1417). All three reigning popes quit or were forcibly deposed. A new Pope-- Martin V-- was elected
1375-1527. Centered in the Italian City States, the Renaissance sparked major changes in European ways of thinking. The major intellectual current of the Italian Renaissance was Humanism. The Renaissance began with a revival of classical learning and moved on to reject medieval Scholastic traditions and spark rational, scientific, and more modern patterns of thought.
Challenged tradition and promoted critical, rational thinking. Closely tied to the modern notions of scientific education and the liberal arts. Interested in the study of man and the use of human reason. Interested in "sound scholarship for its own sake", Renaissance humanists were also poets and artists.
Invented by Johan Gutenburg in the mid-fifteenth century. The printing press was made humanist thought and (later) Reformation thought widely available. This new efficient and cheap way to reproduce books was crucial in spreading ideas that would change the way Europeans thought.
Aztecs and Cortes
In 1519, Cortes landed in what is now Mexico with a small force. By 1521, he had destroyed the mighty Aztec Empire and established Spanish rule. Cortes was smart and lucky. The Aztecs were decimated by Old World diseases to which they had no immunity. Cortes' arrival appeared to conform to an Aztec prophecy, Cortes also used the animosity that other tribes felt toward the repressive, human-scarifying Aztecs to his advantage.
Incas and Pizarro
In 1532, inspired by the example of Cortes, a murderous, drunken, and illiterate Spanish adventurer landed in Peru with a small force to take on the Inca Empire. Spanish technology and horses, along with diseases proved decisive against the Incas. He also took advantage of a Inca civil war and then treacherously murdered the Inca Emperor Atahualpa
Early 1300s. A member of the Alighieri clan and the Guelph "White" faction. Dante led a very varied life. A member of the Florentine elite, Dante was the city's most celebrated poet as well as a judge, solider, and diplomat. He was eventually exiled from Florence, and his moral judgements of his hometown were quite harsh. Dante's life and thought contain a wide variety of both ancient and modern elements
The patriarch of the extended Guerre family in the film The Return Of Martin Guerre. Pierre's obsession with keeping the family lands together, his use of his position to control his family, his adherence to tradition, and his suspicion of change were typical of peasant life and outlook in Early Modern Europe.
Renowned Ancient Rome poet. In Inferno, Virgil's soul serves as Dante's guide. Dante imbues Virgil's character with knowledge, power, and dignity. These are all qualities that Dante associated with, in his view, the more advanced societies of ancient Greece and Rome. Virgil is also portrayed positively because he serves as a symbol for the Holy Roman Empire (which Dante supported against the Papacy)
Forgiveness for sins, sold for money by the Church. This practice started during the Crusades but gradually expanded into a major source of support of the Catholic Church. Indulgences supposedly reduced the amount of time that the purchaser or a relative would spend in Purgatory. Indulgences were resented by many theologians and intellectuals as they seemed to be a symptom of a worldly and money hungry church that was willing to pervert its own doctrines. A particularly egregious campaign of indulgence selling by the monk John Tetzel led Martin Luther to begin the Reformation in 1517.
16th century. Luther, outraged by the sale of indulgences by the Catholic Church, posted the famous 95 Theses in the German town of Wittenberg and began the Reformation. Luther rejected most religious hierarchies and rituals and proclaimed salvation "by faith alone." He challenged many Catholic doctrines including transubstantiation. He and his movement survived in large part because Emperor Charles V was distracted by wars against the Turks and French.
16th century. John Calvin ruled the city of Geneva and took Luther's revolt against the Church much farther than even Luther had intended. Rejecting nearly all forms of hierarchy and ritual, Calvinism preached a gospel of wealth, hard work, and predestination. Appealing primarily to the middle class in urban areas, Calvinism is credited with creating the modern "work ethic". It's individualism also led, however, to the weakening with creating of social bonds and community responsibilities.
Emperor Charles V
16th century had a long reign that was characterized by almost constant warfare. A Spanish Habsburg, Charles fought grueling wars against the Turks and the French that left him unable to deal with the emerging Protestant threat in the way that he would have liked. He did place Martin Luther under "Ban of Empire" (though Luther surprisingly survived) and score military victories against the Protestants later in the 1540s, but, after two puppet rulers that he had appointed joined the Protestant Lutherans. The treaty legitimized Protestant gains and laid down a general rule that the "religion of the ruler would be the religion of the ruled." Calvinism was, however, declared illegal.
The Sacrament of the Communion was seen by the medieval Catholic Church as the literal transformation of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Jesus Christ, Luther challenged this doctrine and said that the two elements were "co-mingled." Other Protestant leaders, such as Zwingli and Calvin went much further (rejecting any form of transubstantiation altogether).
16th century. Originally a strong defender of Catholicism, Henry created the officially Protestant Anglican Church when the Catholic Church would not grant him a divorce from his first wife Catherine of Aragon (who had failed to produce the male heir that Henry desperately wanted). A chronic womanizer, Henry was married a total of six times. He also ate and drank very heavily and suffered excruciated pain from gout (a fact that might have made him even more repressive towards his subjects). Henry's Anglican Church remained, interestingly enough, quite Catholic in its doctrines. Henry's cynicism was fairly typical of those nobleman who saw political or monetary advantages in joining the Reformation.
16th century. Associated with the Jesuit Order founded by Ignatius of Loyola, the Counter-Reformation rolled by back, both by military action and preaching, many early Protestant gains
Battle of White Mountain
1620 Ferdinand II's Catholic general Count Tilly crushed the Protestant Army of Bohemian Calvinist ruler Frederick V in the first major battle of the Thirty Years War. The Catholic victory was so complete that Ferdinand began to believe that he was chosen by God to destroy the Reformation completely. As a result, Bohemia was made Catholic once again.
Church offices filled through competitive bidding. This practice, like the selling of indulgences hurt the reputation of the Catholic Church. It often produced absentee bishops who cared only about the lands they would receive as a result of purchasing the office
17th century, Jesuit-trained Austrian Habsburg. Elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1619, Ferdinand moved to avenge the Defenestration of Prague and his disposition as King of Bohemia (both events that had occurred the previous year). Victorious at White Mountain, Ferdinand went on to ever greater victories against the Protestants with the help of the opportunistic Protestant mercenary and military genius Albrecht von Wallenstein. Ferdinand became confident enough to issue the anti-Protestant Edict of Restitution in 1629. The French-financed Swedish entry in 1630 (led by King Gustavus Adolphus) into the Thirty Years War changed the Emperor's fortunes for the worse though. Even after Wallenstein put an end to the Swedish King's remarkable career at Lutzen in 1632, Ferdinand was faced with an increasingly uncontrollable mercenary general. Placing Wallenstein under "Ban of Empire". Ferdinand solved this issue in 1634, but the war continued and, with the entry of France on the Protestant side, Ferdinand was not able to ever realize his dream of a Europe once again united under the Catholic Church. Ferdinand died before the war ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia.
A military leader of great skill, creativity and courage, this young Swedish King turned the ide of the Thirty Years War with his crushing victory at Breitenfeld (1630) over the previously unbeaten Catholic Army of Count Tilly. Though his forces narrowly won the terrible Battle of Lutzen (1632), Gustavus Adolphus died there while fighting against the army of his moral enemy Alberecht von Wallenstein
Albrecht von Wallenstein
Opportunistic Protestant mercenary who was employed by Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II during the Hundred Years War. Wallenstein won the Danish Phase (1625-1629) of the war for Ferdinand only to be temporarily "Retired" after he objected to the Edict of Restitution on the grounds that it was politically unrealistic. Ferdinand was forced to re-employ Wallenstein after Gustavus Adolphus and his Swedish Army had turned the tide of the war. Wallenstein managed to rid Ferdinand of his greatest enemy at the ferocious Battle of Lutzen (1632), but the relationship between Emperor and general was, by now, deeply distrustful. Wallenstein began bargaining with the Protestants to see if they would pay him even more for his military services than Ferdinand. Placed under "Ban of Empire" by Ferdinand, Wallenstein was assassinated by some of his own mercenary troops in 1634
Treaty of Westphalia
1648. This agreement finally ended the Thirty Years War and ushered in an era of greater religious tolerance. Rulers were now expected to convert to the predominant faith, Protestantism (including Calvinism) was now fully recognized and placed on an equal footing with Catholicism
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