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30 terms

ICP Electricity

STUDY
PLAY
Electric charge
comes from an imbalance of electrons and protons; causes things to attract or repel
Electric force
the force caused by electric charge; opposites attract and like charges repel
Units for charge
Coulomb (C)
Electric force and distance
Stronger at close distances, weaker at long distances
Electric potential
The potential energy caused when electric charges have the chance to make an electric force; also called VOLTAGE
Current
the rate that electric charges move through a conductor
Current Formula
current = charge/time
I = q/t
Electrons
negative charge carriers; the flow of electrons is what causes current
Conductor
conducts electricity and allows electrons to flow through it (metals, humans, water)
Insulator
do not conduct electricity (rubber, plastic, air, non-metals
Field lines come out of...
positive charges
Field lines point to...
negative charges
A positively charged object will move _______ along a field line
forward
A negatively charged object will move _______ along a field line
backward
When charges are stronger... (what do we do with field lines?)
draw more field lines
Rule for drawing field lines
they NEVER cross
Potential energy
the capacity to do work
Gravity
all mass is attracted to all mass; height represents potential energy
Voltage
the difference in electrical potential energy between two places in a circuit; tells you which way charges want to move and how badly (like a map of where charges want to go)
Units for current
Amperes (A)
Resistance
is caused by internal friction that slows down the movement of charge through a conductor
Insulator (resistance)
very high resistance
Conductor (resistance)
low resistance
Semiconductor (resistance)
medium resistance; resistance can be changed
Superconductor (resistance)
zero resistance
Resistance equation
V = IR
Voltage (electric potential) =
Current x Resistance
Resistance units
Ohms (Ω say "omega")
Semiconductors
insulators in their natural state, but can be manipulated so that sometimes they conduct, and sometimes they don't
Semiconductors on the periodic table
Can be found right on the line between metals and non-metals
Maglev
A train that floats above a magnetic track; the tracks are superconductors