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Terms in this set (60)
The typical state of a neuron is the _____ potential, but when electrical signals stimulate it to its threshold, the _____ is immediately observed.
resting; action potential
Scientists such as Max Wertheimer and Kurt Lewin paved the way for _____ by renewing interest in phenomena such as perception, memory, and subjective experiences
You decide to use a person's eye color as a measure of intelligence. Which statement is true?
The measure is reliable but lacks validity.
The myelinated sheath of an axon:
allows for faster transmission of signals to other neurons, organs, or muscles.
If an experiment has a high degree of _____, a causal relationship can be demonstrated between two variables.
Animals will work to self-administer most drugs except _____, which are also not likely to be addictive or produce dependence or overdoses in humans.
____ stresses the importance of studying observable behaviors and ignores the mental processes involved in different tasks.
Vijay has problems orienting to loud sounds. For example, in traffic, he cannot tell the direction that a car beep originated. What area of the central nervous system is likely malfunctioning to be responsible for this behavior?
The three basic parts of a neuron are the:
cell body, axon, and dendrites.
Terrence is studying how music affects attitudes. On a hot June day, he exposes one group of college students to classical music and another group to jazz, while he measures their attitudes toward war. The dependent variable is:
attitude toward war.
William James suggested that consciousness should be examined depending on the purpose of the mental processes involved, as suggested by _____, rather than trying to break it down into specific elements as suggested by _____.
A common sleep disorder where the sleeping person stops breathing for a brief period is:
The benefit of using functional brain imaging techniques is that they allow researchers to:
observe dynamic activity of the brain as it happens during specific tasks.
The expectancy theory proposes that the varied effects of alcohol are determined by:
people's beliefs about how they think it will influence them in different situations.
Split-brain studies have revealed that:
certain tasks and behaviors seem to be localized to either the left or right hemisphere.
When you are at a party, you generally do not hear all the conversations going on around you. But if someone suddenly said your name while talking with someone else, your attention would shift to that conversation. Your ability to tune out background noise and pay attention to only certain stimuli refers to what aspect of consciousness?
The research of _____, in which rats' maze performance was measured before and after brain surgery, was a forerunner of today's behavioral neuroscience.
Fran's 4-year-old son awoke at 9:00 p.m., crying and in a panic, but did not remember having a dream. It is likely that Fran's son experienced:
a night terror.
Helmholtz was a(n) _____ who studied _____.
physiologist; reaction time
The _____ stimulates the release of neurotransmitters from the _____, allowing neurons to communicate with each other.
action potential; vesicles
A few hours of sleep deprivation each night can:
build up over time, causing potentially serious physical and mental harm.
Recent research on the mind-body problem has suggested that:
the brain directs the mind.
_____ excite the activity of the central nervous system, resulting in heightened arousal and activity levels.
In order for a study to be a true experiment, you must _____ variable and _____ variable.
manipulate an independent; measure a dependent
_____ are sections on a strand of _____.
A boxer suddenly begins experiencing wild mood swings and bizarre behavior. A neuroscientist determines that the boxer has traumatic brain injury probably caused by numerous concussions. The neuroscientist then studies the brain functioning of the boxer in great detail using fMRI brain-imaging techniques to learn more about concussions. This represents a(n):
Which individual is MOST likely to experience sleep apnea?
Mark, an overweight 55-year-old man
A mother sleeping in the middle of the night nevertheless responds when she hears her 2-year-old daughter crying in the adjacent bedroom. This indicates that the mother possesses:
Which question pertains to psychological drug dependence?
Will users crave the drug if they stop?
In order to process information from the external world, _____ receive input from the body and transfer the information to the brain through the spinal cord.
A college recently banned the use of plastic water bottles on campus in an effort to be more eco-friendly. A psychologist at the college is interested in the attitudes of the students toward this ban. She obtains a list of all of the students who are enrolled at the college. She randomly picks 100 students from this list and administers to these students a survey designed to assess their opinions on the plastic water bottle ban. The psychologist is using which method?
A scientist theorizes that several billion years ago, a large asteroid collided with the Earth, knocking tons of rock into space and creating the Moon. Which statement constitutes a research hypothesis that follows from this theory?
Moon rock should be made of the same elements as Earth rock.
Neurons _____ connected physically and communicate with each other at the _____.
are not; synapse
Professor Knice gives his introductory psychology class of 300 students an exam, and everyone earns an A. The exam lacks the _____ to detect which students studied and which did not.
Which statement is NOT true about B. F. Skinner?
He taught "Little Albert" to fear rats.
Cognitive psychology addressed the critiques of behaviorism by applying scientific methods to the study of:
mental processes, such as memory, perception, and thought.
Troy's roommates were surprised when they found him walking around the kitchen at 3:00 a.m. trying to make breakfast, especially because he was still asleep! Troy MOST likely suffers from:
A _____ treats individuals with psychological problems and is allowed to prescribe medication.
To test whether elephants have a conscious self, researchers marked an "X" on the top of an elephant's trunk with white paint and placed a large mirror in front of the animal. What behavior demonstrates that the elephant had reached the level of self-consciousness?
The elephant touches the white "X" on itself.
Jennifer is suffering from amnesia and cannot form any new memories. Which region of her brain is MOST likely to show impairments?
Larry was hit hard by the flying baseball bat after it bounced off the backstop and lost his vision, even though his eyes were unharmed. Which part of the head did Larry probably get hit?
the back of his skull
Prozac works by:
blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synapse.
Denton could pitch a baseball in what looked like an effortless and smooth movement. What part of the hindbrain is most associated with this highly coordinated motion?
Consciousness can be described as consisting of four basic properties, which are:
intentionality, unity, selectivity, and transience.
Because dreams are often populated with anxiety-producing images (for example, heights, monsters, major exams for which you forgot to study, being naked in public), it is not surprising to find that the _____ is quite active during REM sleep.
Wilhelm Wundt used _____ as a technique to determine the _____ of consciousness.
introspection; basic elements
Why can you NOT claim a cause-and-effect relationship with correlational studies?
The correlation between two variables might arise due to the presence of a third variable, causing an effect in both variables of interest.
If you are sleeping, stimulating which area of the brain might render you instantly alert?
Which of these is the BEST predictor of susceptibility to hypnosis?
whether or not a person believes he or she is hypnotizable
The difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others is called the:
problem of other minds.
During an action potential, information is transmitted as an electrical signal primarily as a result of _____ rushing into the cell.
Alexandria has been suffering from seizures. Of these, she is MOST likely to have a lower level of which neurotransmitter?
Bethany thinks her dog is overweight so she switches the dog to a new brand of food for overweight dogs. The switch in dog food is an example of a(n):
By asking people to pay attention to and record their feelings and perceptions of an event, Wilhelm Wundt used the method of _____ to analyze the basic elements of the mind.
Functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) directly measures the:
activity of oxygenated hemoglobin in the blood in the brain.
During the refractory period, an active chemical pump in the cell membrane:
restores the resting potential when it pumps potassium into and sodium out of the neuron.
The study of how things appear to the conscious person is called:
A well-established phenomenon of hypnosis is that some people who are susceptible to hypnosis can experience a reduction of pain even more effective than that produced under anesthesia. This phenomenon is known as:
Tyler was shot in the head, and the bullet passed through his frontal lobe. Fortunately, Tyler survived. Which of the following would Tyler MOST likely suffer deficits in:
planning and decision making.
Dream consciousness is characterized by all of these EXCEPT:
sensations of pain during some nightmares.
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