Test 2 Review Guide
Terms in this set (27)
city (complete human life; aims at living well)
community (or association...idea that there is no such thing as an individual as a whole)
literal translation: regime or constitution
signifies: arrangement of offices and way of life
Three fundamental types of rule
Master/slave: rule of one who has reason over the one who does not have reason
Kingly: rule based on age
Political: rule on equals
Orgins of three fundamental types (i.e. household)
- some knowledge makes men masters spontaneously, so those who don't know these skills follow.
- male and female spontaneously come together and reproduce. then, a parent and child relationship/kingship forms.
- master-slave (monarchy); husband-wife (political); parent-child (kingship)
What mistake do the barbarians make about women and slaves?
They see women and slaves to be on the same level, while women make each thing for one use, unlike the slave. The barbarians make this mistake, due to their community only being of slaves.
What is the difference between the master and the natural slave
the master possesses rational, commanding powers, while the slave, lacking these, is fit only to carry out menial duties
Difference: master has a full capacity for reason, but slave cannot use his mind and only has the obedience to his master's reason.
Why is politics not dominated by the powerful?
There are common cases where men naturally dominate females through the will of the stronger. Although this happens spontaneously, it does not imply man's fullest nature is domination. Through just laws commanding according to reason, people's fullest natures can be fulfilled.
Dominion is not natural. Instead it is submitting to logos (reason) by truly living well according to nature.
Three basic kinds of community
household: daily needs
village: nondaily needs
polis: living well
Def: social creature with the power of speech and moral reasoning. it is nature for man to congregate with other political creatures to form a polis
someone who shares in the administration of justice and the holding of public office
Good man vs good citizen
good citizen: administration of justice and in offices, member of a community, does not require virtue (being a good man), must simply be successful at sustaining their regime
good man: virtuous, must be a good citizen
Two basic regimes
Regime for ruler vs Regime for rule
Six types of regimes
aristocracy (ruled by few)
polity (ruled by many)
monarchy (ruled by one)
oligarchy (ruler of few)
democracy (ruler of many)
tyranny (ruler of one)
Why are Oligarchy and Democracy really the rule of the rich and the poor?
Oligarchy: ruler is the few/wealthy
Democracy: ruler is the many/poor (liberality, equality, live as you like)
Why: there will always be many who have less than the few who have much. Thus it is impossible to rid this dynamic of the envy & arrogance from the poor and rich.
Why does Aristotle think law is not only an agreement for mutual advantage
A mutual agreement is a business arrangement, not a human community. A real human community is coming together on the basis of the cult (ritual) in order to live well. This has an underlying religious aspect, meshing families together in a way they were not before.
Good regime essentiality to happiness
Because man is a political animal, regimes should be oriented towards achieving human excellence & virtue by bringing men together. Thus, completing human happiness is done by living well following from a life of virtue.
Why do particular regimes realize the good life more or less
Excesses: tyranny (worst: excessive concentration of power), oligarchy, democracy (least: minimum concentration of power)
Difference in concentration of power which allows vice or virtue to be released to a greater or lesser extent
Affection in political communities
Generated by meshing two families together into a community through marriages, festivals, pas times of togetherness, etc.
Role: makes a community
What is the cancer of political communities
Envy: tendency for those who don't have to want what others have. It causes strife between those who have property/money and those who don't. It results in communication defections falling apart.
Exacerbated: establish a regime that creates the possibility of a middling between the rich and poor.
How do various governments all have merit? Which is the best?
Each government has different claims to virtue. The many are ruled by the majority, the democrat has knowledge, and the oligarchy controls the land and money. But the best (aristocracy) aims at the human good.
How does polity emerge
constitutional government balanced between democracy and oligarchy
def: mean between poor and wealthy; basically middle class. Balance between oligarchy and democracy.
benefits: best practical regime (self control &a leisure to pursue a life of leisure), readiest to obey reason, readiest to rule or be ruled, not arrogance, least to deliberate themselves
Three best regimes
How to not imperialism
Cause: People solely thinking about politics (i.e. security) leads to a hunger for power and not a strive for the good life.
Avoiding: Disproportionately focusing on contemplation life (keeping goal for human good) counteracts this
- contains a mixture of elements of each individual regime
- maintains middle citizens
- territory: enemies out, friends in; by sea, navy, ports slightly separated from polis, imports
people: spirited and intelligent
daily: food, art
non daily: arms, revenue
polis: religion, reason
Goal of Aristotle's Politics
To care for human beings by finding the best possible regime. This is revealed by which political community is most conductive to the good of man.